# Study-Unit Description

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CODE PHY3120

TITLE Electromagnetism

LEVEL 03 - Years 2, 3, 4 in Modular Undergraduate Course

ECTS CREDITS 6

DEPARTMENT Physics

DESCRIPTION Prerequisite
PHY1140 and PHY1160

Mathematical background:
Gradient; divergence; curl; Laplacian operator; Divergence Theorem; Stokes' Theorem

Electrostatics:
Coulomb's law; electric field of a charge distribution; Gauss' law; divergence of E

Lorentz force; Biot-Savart law; divergence of B; Ampére's law

Time-varying fields:
Faraday's induction law; curl of E; vacuum displacement current; curl of B

Electromagnetic waves in free space:
Maxwell's equations in free space; wave equations for E and B; plane wave solutions for the wave equation; polarization

Electric fields in insulators:
Electric dipole moment; dielectric polarization; dielectrics in non-uniform electric fields; polarization charge density and surface charge density; electric displacement vector D; electric susceptibility

Magnetic fields in matter:
Magnetic dipole moment; magnetisation vector M; magnetic intensity vector H; magnetic susceptibility

Electromagnetic fields in linear, isotropic and homogeneous media:
Maxwell's equations in LIH media; wave equation for LIH media; conducting media; skin depth; E and H vectors in lossy media; complex permittivity and permeability

Electromagnetic field energy:
Energy density in electromagnetic fields; energy flow; Poynting's Theorem; Poynting vector in free space and LIH media

Boundary conditions at the interface between two media for the field vectors E, B, D and H

Applications of the boundary conditions:
Reflection and refraction of plane waves at the interface between dielectric media; Fresnel equations; Brewster angle; reflection and refraction at the surface of a good conductor

Propagation of electromagnetic waves in waveguides:
Parallel wire transmission lines; line equations; characteristic impedance; coaxial cables; rectangular waveguides; TEnm and TMnm propagation modes in rectangular waveguides; cut-off frequency

The scalar and vector potentials; ?(r) and A(r); Lorentz Gauge; Maxwell's equations in terms of ?(r) and A(r); antenna theory - solutions for ?(r) and A(r); radiation by time-varying currents - Hertzian dipole; far fields; half-wave antenna; radiation resistance; loop antenna

Recommended Texts:

- I S Grant and W R Philips, Electromagnetism, John Wiley and Sons
- W N Cottingham and D A Greenwood, Electricity and Magnetism, Cambridge University Press
- P Lorrain and D Corson, Electromagnetic Fields and Waves, W H Freeman and Co
- S Ramo, J R Whinery and T vanDuzer, Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics, John Wiley and Sons
- R E DuBroff, S V Marshall and G G Skitek, Electromagnetic Concepts and Applications, Prentice Hall
- D H Staelin, A W Morgenthaler and J A Kong, Electromagnetic Waves, Prentice Hall
- J D Kraus, Electromagnetics, McGraw-Hill
- F W Ulaby, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics, Prentice Hall
- C A Balanis, Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics, John Wiley and Sons
- C J Camilleri, Vector Analysis, Malta University Press

STUDY-UNIT TYPE Lecture

METHOD OF ASSESSMENT
 Assessment Component/s Assessment Due Resit Availability Weighting Examination (3 Hours) SEM2 Yes 100%

LECTURER/S Charles V. Sammut

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