University of Malta

Study-Unit Description
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TITLE Electrical Power 3

LEVEL 04 - Years 4, 5 in Modular UG or PG Cert Course


DEPARTMENT Industrial Electrical Power Conversion

DESCRIPTION This study-unit describes the theory and practical aspects of three applications that are fundamental to the modelling and analysis of electrical power systems: Generator Control, Load Flow, Unsymmetrical Faults and System Stability.

In addition, this study-unit looks at power system protection principles and protection of high voltage networks and generators. Further, substation monitoring and control and SCADA will be studied and regulatory aspects of power system operation will also be discussed.

The topics that will be studied within each of these areas are listed below.

Generator Control - active power/frequency control loop using governor; droop characteristic; reactive power/voltage control loop using AVR; excitation systems; behaviour of a synchronous machine connected to an infinite busbar.

Load Flow: nature of load flow problem; formulation of load flow equations using nodal analysis; iterative solution of equations using the Gauss Seidel method; conditioning and convergence.

Unsymmetrical Faults - overview of symmetrical components; derivation of sequence network interconnection; transformer zero sequence models; calculation of phase fault currents.

System Stability - causes and effects of generator power imbalance; physical interpretation of the generator power-angle diagram, derivation of the equal area criterion, effect of different types of faults on generator stability, critical clearing angle.

High Voltage Networks protection: The fundamentals and principles of protection for different types of faults; Main versus back up protection for transformers, cables, overhead lines and generators. Busbar protection. Protection zones and schemes.

Protection principles: Over current relays and fuses. Types, characteristics and back up protection analysis. Characteristics of modern relays and bay controllers: Types, Automation, and monitoring and control of switchgear including modern protection types; Circuit breaker fail protection trip circuit supervision, busbar protection.

Generator protection: protection principles and characteristics for different types of generators; frequency voltage and current protection schemes, protection and control of generators systems; different earthing methods and protection requirements.

Substation monitoring and control and SCADA: monitoring and automation of distribution centres and the whole high voltage network.

Regulatory aspects of generation, transmission and distribution of electricity: Local and EU regulations.

Study-unit Aims:

The aims of the study-unit are to provide the electrical engineering student with an understanding of the underlying principles of the following areas:
- Generator Control
- Load Flow
- Unsymmetrical Faults
- System Stability
- Power System Protection
- Substation monitoring and control and SCADA

The study-unit will also present the local and EU regulatory framework relevant to electrical power system engineers.

Learning Outcomes:

1. Knowledge & Understanding:

By the end of the study-unit the student will be able to:
- explain the basic control loops of a synchronous generator,
- perform a load flow calculation on a simple power network,
- utilise the method of symmetrical components to analyse unsymmetrical faults,
- investigate the stability of single machines connected to an infinite bus,
- describe the protection requirements of high voltage networks,
- work out typical high voltage network problems and gain a basic understanding of discrimination between back up protection units.

2. Skills:

By the end of the study-unit the student will be able to:
- perform manual calculations on simple systems in the areas of study,
- interpret input data requirements of typical power system analysis software,
- interpret results of typical power system analysis software,
- work out actual problems of modern power systems.

Main Text/s and any supplementary readings:

- Weedy B.M., Electric Power Systems, 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1988.
- John J. Grainger, Stevenson W.D., Element of Power System Analysis, 4th Edition, McGraw Hill, 1982.
- Arigalla, J.C.P. Arnold, B.J. Harku, Computer Modelling Of Electrical Power System, Wiley, 1983.
- Nagrath I.S., Kothari D.P., Modern Power System Analysis, 2nd Edition., Tata McGraw Hill New Delhi, 2001.
- Glover J.D, Sarma M.S., Power System Analysis and Design, 3rd Edition, Brooks/Cole, USA, 2002.
- Chapman S.J., Electric Machinery and Power System Fundamentals, 1st Edition, McGraw Hill, New York, 2002.

ADDITIONAL NOTES Pre-requisite Study-unit: EPC3102

STUDY-UNIT TYPE Lecture, Practicum & Tutorial

Assessment Component/s Resit Availability Weighting
Practical No 15%
Examination (2 Hours) Yes 85%

LECTURER/S Alan Cassar
Godwin Sant

The University makes every effort to ensure that the published Courses Plans, Programmes of Study and Study-Unit information are complete and up-to-date at the time of publication. The University reserves the right to make changes in case errors are detected after publication.
The availability of optional units may be subject to timetabling constraints.
Units not attracting a sufficient number of registrations may be withdrawn without notice.
It should be noted that all the information in the study-unit description above applies to the academic year 2017/8, if study-unit is available during this academic year, and may be subject to change in subsequent years.

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