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dc.contributor.authorFormosa, Melissa Marie-
dc.contributor.authorXuereb-Anastasi, Angela-
dc.identifier.citationFormosa, M. M., & Xuereb-Anastasi, A. (2016). Biochemical predictors of low bone mineral density and fracture susceptibility in maltese postmenopausal women. Calcified Tissue International, 98(1), 28-41.en_GB
dc.descriptionThis study was partially supported by the European Union Strategic Educational Pathways Scholarship scheme (STEPS). This scholarship is part-financed by the European Union—European Social Fund (ESF) under Operational Programme II—Cohesion Policy 2007–2013, ‘‘Empowering people for More Jobs and a Better Quality of Life’’.en_GB
dc.description.abstractOsteoporosis and fractures are complex conditions influenced by an interplay of genetic and environmental factors. The aim of the study was to investigate three biochemical parameters including total serum calcium, total serum alkaline phosphatase (sALP) and albumin in relation to bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck (FN), and with all-type of low-trauma fractures in Maltese postmenopausal women. Levels were also correlated with age and physical activity. A case–control study of 1045 women was performed. Women who suffered a fracture were classified as cases whereas women without a fracture history were included as controls subdivided into normal, osteopenic, or osteoporotic according to their BMD measurements. Blood specimens were collected following good standard practice and testing was performed by spectrophotometry. Calcium and sALP levels were weakly correlated with FN BMD levels (calcium: r = -0.111, p = 0.002; sALP: r = 0.089, p = 0.013). Fracture cases had the lowest serum levels of calcium, sALP and albumin relative to all other control groups, which decreased with increasing age, possibly increasing fracture risk. Biochemical levels were lowest in women who sustained a hip fracture and more than one fracture. Biochemical parameters decreased with reduced physical activity; however, this was most evident for fracture cases. Reduced physical activity was associated with lower BMD levels at the hip, and to a lower extent at the spine. In conclusion, results suggest that levels of serum calcium and albumin could be indicative of fracture risk, whereas calcium levels and to lower extent sALP levels could be indicators of hip BMD.en_GB
dc.publisherSpringer New York LLCen_GB
dc.subjectOsteoporosis -- Malta -- Case studiesen_GB
dc.subjectOsteoporosis in women -- Maltaen_GB
dc.titleBiochemical predictors of low bone mineral density and fracture susceptibility in Maltese postmenopausal womenen_GB
dc.rights.holderThe copyright of this work belongs to the author(s)/publisher. The rights of this work are as defined by the appropriate Copyright Legislation or as modified by any successive legislation. Users may access this work and can make use of the information contained in accordance with the Copyright Legislation provided that the author must be properly acknowledged. Further distribution or reproduction in any format is prohibited without the prior permission of the copyright holder.en_GB
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