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dc.contributor.authorGatt, Ruben-
dc.contributor.authorVella Wood, Michelle-
dc.contributor.authorGatt, Alfred-
dc.contributor.authorZarb, Francis-
dc.contributor.authorFormosa, Cynthia-
dc.contributor.authorAzzopardi, Keith M.-
dc.contributor.authorCasha, Aaron-
dc.contributor.authorAgius, Tonio P.-
dc.contributor.authorSchembri Wismayer, Patrick-
dc.contributor.authorAttard, Lucienne-
dc.contributor.authorChockalingam, Nachiappan-
dc.contributor.authorGrima, Joseph N.-
dc.identifier.citationGatt, R., Vella Wood, M., Gatt, A., Zarb, F., Formosa, C., Azzopardi, K. M., ... Grima, J. N. (2015). Negative Poisson’s ratios in tendons : an unexpected mechanical response. Acta Biomaterialia, 24, 201-208.en_GB
dc.descriptionPart of this work has been funded by the Malta Council for Science and Technology through the R&I-2012-061 Project (SMESH).en_GB
dc.description.abstractTendons are visco-elastic structures that connect bones to muscles and perform the basic function of force transfer to and from the skeleton. They are essential for positioning as well as energy storing when involved in more abrupt movements such as jumping. Unfortunately, they are also prone to damage, and when injuries occur, they may have dilapidating consequences. For instance, there is consensus that injuries of tendons such as Achilles tendinopathies, which are common in athletes, are difficult to treat. Here we show, through in vivo and ex vivo tests, that healthy tendons are highly anisotropic and behave in a very unconventional manner when stretched, and exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio (auxeticity) in some planes when stretched up to 2% along their length, i.e. within their normal range of motion. Furthermore, since the Poisson’s ratio is highly dependent on the material’s microstructure, which may be lost if tendons are damaged or diseased, this property may provide a suitable diagnostic tool to assess tendon health. Statement of significance We report that human tendons including the Achilles tendons exhibits the very unusual mechanical property of a negative Poisson’s ratio (auxetic) meaning that they get fatter rather than thinner when stretched. This report is backed by in vivo and ex vivo experiments we performed which clearly confirm auxeticity in this living material for strains which correspond to those experienced during most normal everyday activities. We also show that this property is not limited to the human Achilles tendon, as it was also found in tendons taken from sheep and pigs. This new information about tendons can form the scientific basis for a test for tendon health as well as enable the design of better tendon prosthesis which could replace damaged tendons.en_GB
dc.titleNegative Poisson’s ratios in tendons : an unexpected mechanical responseen_GB
dc.rights.holderThe copyright of this work belongs to the author(s)/publisher. The rights of this work are as defined by the appropriate Copyright Legislation or as modified by any successive legislation. Users may access this work and can make use of the information contained in accordance with the Copyright Legislation provided that the author must be properly acknowledged. Further distribution or reproduction in any format is prohibited without the prior permission of the copyright holder.en_GB
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