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dc.contributor.authorBriguglio, Michael-
dc.identifier.citationBriguglio, M. (2010). Are ENGOs empowered through EU accession? The case of Maltese ENGOs. International Journal of Green Economics. 4(3), 262-274.en_GB
dc.description.abstractMalta joined the European Union in 2004 and carried out vast changes in its environmental legislation during the process. Environmental NGOs have been key actors in this regard. This paper verifies whether Malta's EU accession has helped empower such organisations. The paper argues that EU accession has enhanced empowerment of ENGOs. This has occurred as a result of EU-driven policy and legislative reforms, leading to the institutionalisation of various ENGOs – especially if conservationist, but not if local or radical – through their participation in environmental reform. In addition, lobbying opportunities for ENGOs within EU institutions have increased. However, various factors constrain the ENGOs' empowerment, including neo-liberal ideology; political pressure from other lobby groups; and economic pressures. It should be qualified that empowerment has effected ENGOs differently, with conservationists gaining most, followed by sustainable development, radical and local ENGOs respectively.en_GB
dc.publisherInderscience Enterprises Ltd.en_GB
dc.subjectNon-governmental organizations -- Maltaen_GB
dc.subjectEnvironmental protection -- Maltaen_GB
dc.titleAre ENGOs empowered through EU accession? The case of Maltese ENGOsen_GB
dc.rights.holderThe copyright of this work belongs to the author(s)/publisher. The rights of this work are as defined by the appropriate Copyright Legislation or as modified by any successive legislation. Users may access this work and can make use of the information contained in accordance with the Copyright Legislation provided that the author must be properly acknowledged. Further distribution or reproduction in any format is prohibited without the prior permission of the copyright holder.en_GB
dc.publication.titleInternational Journal of Green Economicsen_GB
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