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Title: Measured and simulated heavy-ion beam loss patterns at the CERN Large Hadron Collider
Authors: Hermes, Pascal Dominik
Bruce, Roderik
Jowett, John M.
Redaelli, Stefano
Salvachua, Belen
Valentino, Gianluca
Wollmann, Daniel
Keywords: Large Hadron Collider (France and Switzerland)
Colliders (Nuclear physics)
Collimators (Optical instrument)
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Citation: Hermes, P. D., Bruce, R., Jowett, J. M., Redaelli, S., Salvachua Ferrando, B., Valentino, G., & Wollmann, D. (2016). Measured and simulated heavy-ion beam loss patterns at the CERN large hadron collider. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 819, 73-83.
Abstract: The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN pushes forward to new regimes in terms of beam energy and intensity. In view of the combination of very energetic and intense beams together with sensitive machine components, in particular the superconducting magnets, the LHC is equipped with a collimation system to provide protection and intercept uncontrolled beam losses. Beam losses could cause a superconducting magnet to quench, or in the worst case, damage the hardware. The collimation system, which is optimized to provide a good protection with proton beams, has shown a cleaning efficiency with heavy-ion beams which is worse by up to two orders of magnitude. The reason for this reduced cleaning efficiency is the fragmentation of heavy-ion beams into isotopes with a different mass to charge ratios because of the interaction with the collimator material. In order to ensure sufficient collimation performance in future ion runs, a detailed theoretical understanding of ion collimation is needed. The simulation of heavy-ion collimation must include processes in which Pb82+208 ions fragment into dozens of new isotopes. The ions and their fragments must be tracked inside the magnetic lattice of the LHC to determine their loss positions. This paper gives an overview of physical processes important for the description of heavy-ion loss patterns. Loss maps simulated by means of the two tools ICOSIM [1,2] and the newly developed STIER (SixTrack with Ion-Equivalent Rigidities) are compared with experimental data measured during LHC operation. The comparison shows that the tool STIER is in better agreement.
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