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dc.contributor.authorSammut, Gordon-
dc.contributor.authorSinagra, Emmanuel-
dc.contributor.authorSapiano, Manuel-
dc.contributor.authorHelmus, Rick-
dc.contributor.authorDe Voogt, Pim W. P.-
dc.identifier.citationSammut, G., Sinagra, E., Sapiano, M., Helmus, R., & de Voogt, W. P. (2019). Perfluoroalkyl substances in the Maltese environment – (II) sediments, soils and groundwater. Science of the Total Environment, 682, 180-189.en_GB
dc.description.abstractThe presence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in sediments and groundwater on the Maltese Islands is reported here for the first time. Sediments and soil samples were collected from 24 sites and groundwater was collected from 10 boreholes. PFASs were extracted from water and solid samples using solid phase extraction. The extracts were then analysed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem (UPLC-MS/MS). All sediment, soil and groundwater samples were contaminated with at least one PFAS. PFOS (<LOQ – 5.91 ng/g), PFOA (<LOQ – 0.58 ng/g) and PFDA (<LOQ – 1.05 ng/g) were the major PFASs being detected in 100% of the sediment and soil samples. Meanwhile PFOA (<LOD – 2.68 ng/L) was the PFAS detected in all groundwater samples. The concentrations of PFASs observed in groundwater on the Maltese Islands were below the parameters set by the Directive 98/83/EC.en_GB
dc.publisherElsevier B.V.en_GB
dc.subjectSurface active agentsen_GB
dc.subjectSurface active agents -- Environmental aspectsen_GB
dc.subjectFluorocarbons -- Environmental aspectsen_GB
dc.subjectFluorocarbons -- Maltaen_GB
dc.subjectGroundwater -- Maltaen_GB
dc.subjectSediments (Geology) -- Maltaen_GB
dc.subjectSoils -- Maltaen_GB
dc.subjectSoils -- Analysisen_GB
dc.titlePerfluoroalkyl substances in the Maltese environment – (II) sediments, soils and groundwateren_GB
dc.rights.holderThe copyright of this work belongs to the author(s)/publisher. The rights of this work are as defined by the appropriate Copyright Legislation or as modified by any successive legislation. Users may access this work and can make use of the information contained in accordance with the Copyright Legislation provided that the author must be properly acknowledged. Further distribution or reproduction in any format is prohibited without the prior permission of the copyright holder.en_GB
dc.publication.titleScience of the Total Environmenten_GB
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