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dc.contributor.authorRuffell, Alastair-
dc.identifier.citationRuffell, A. (2020). Appendix 1 : how ground penetrating radar (GPR) works. In: C. French, C. O. Hunt, R. Grima, R. McLaughlin, S. Stoddart & C. Malone, Temple landscapes : fragility, change and resilience of Holocene environments in the Maltese Islands. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research. 351-352.en_GB
dc.description.abstractGround penetrating radar (or GPR) uses the transmission and reflection of radio waves (typically 25 to 2 GHz) in imaging the subsurface. Radar waves, introduced in the ground, may reflect back to surface when they intersect objects or surfaces of varying dielectric permittivity. Thus a GPR system requires a source antenna and receiving antenna (built to measure the same frequency). *Note that the plural of electrical devices is antennas; antennae are exclusively for animals such as insects. The transmitting antenna generates a pulse of radiowaves that the receiver detects at a set time interval: the longer the time interval, (potentially) the deeper the waves will have travelled into the ground (or to a nearby surface object) and back again. When the ground has a slow radarwave velocity, so a buried object may appear deeper than in ground with a fast transmissive velocity. [excerpt]en_GB
dc.description.sponsorshipThis project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-2007-2013) (Grant agreement No. 323727).en_GB
dc.publisherMcDonald Institute for Archaeological Researchen_GB
dc.subjectGround penetrating radaren_GB
dc.subjectGeophysics -- Methodologyen_GB
dc.titleAppendix 1 : how ground penetrating radar (GPR) worksen_GB
dc.title.alternativeTemple landscapes : fragility, change and resilience of Holocene environments in the Maltese Islandsen_GB
dc.rights.holderThe copyright of this work belongs to the author(s)/publisher. The rights of this work are as defined by the appropriate Copyright Legislation or as modified by any successive legislation. Users may access this work and can make use of the information contained in accordance with the Copyright Legislation provided that the author must be properly acknowledged. Further distribution or reproduction in any format is prohibited without the prior permission of the copyright holder.en_GB
Appears in Collections:Temple landscapes: Fragility, change and resilience of Holocene environments in the Maltese Islands

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