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dc.contributor.authorAquilina, Noel-
dc.contributor.authorHavel, Christopher M.-
dc.contributor.authorCheung, Polly-
dc.contributor.authorHarrison, Roy M.-
dc.contributor.authorHo, Kin-Fai-
dc.contributor.authorBenowitz, Neal L.-
dc.contributor.authorJacob III, Peyton-
dc.identifier.citationAquilina, N., Havelm C. M., Cheung, P., Harrison, R. M., Ho, K. F., Benowitz, N. L., & Jacob III, P. (2021). Ubiquitous atmospheric contamination by tobacco smoke : nicotine and a new marker for tobacco smoke-derived particulate matter, nicotelline. Environment International, 150, 106417.en_GB
dc.description.abstractSecond Hand Smoke (SHS) has always been primarily linked with indoor pollution. To date nicotine was the favoured marker for SHS alongside measurements of particulate matter (PM) levels. As nicotine is mainly found in the gas-phase and reactive in the outdoor environment it is not ideal as a marker for the SHS-driven particulate component in PM. Nicotelline, a minor tobacco alkaloid that is stable, found almost exclusively in the particle phase and easy to quantify even at low concentrations, is being proposed as a better marker. It is the first study using bisulfate-treated quartz fiber filters to show that airborne nicotine (gas+particle phase) is directly proportional to airborne nicotelline in countries that have different climates. The analytical method developed has been validated to show that the use of untreated filters is suitable for the quantification of nicotelline even at low concentrations. Although nicotelline exhibits a seasonal and geographical variation, this is the first comprehensive study which demonstrates the ubiquitous presence of nicotelline in PM from outdoor air samples collected in the USA (0.1–285.6 pgm-3), UK (2.3–9.1 pgm-3), Hong Kong (3.8–109.3 pgm-3) and Malta (4.2–280.8 pgm-3). From the nicotelline apportionment factor of 1589 ng/mg of tobacco smoke PM we estimate the fraction of outdoor airborne PM derived from SHS to be in the range of 0.03–0.08%. While it is unlikely for tobacco smoke-related toxics in outdoor PM to be considered a major health hazard, in heavily polluted microenvironments this marker would be useful in tracing the presence of SHS and emerging Third Hand Smoke components that form or are found in airborne and settled PM that could induce serious health effects.en_GB
dc.publisherElsevier Ltd.en_GB
dc.subjectPassive smoking -- Health aspectsen_GB
dc.subjectTobacco smoke pollution -- Measurementen_GB
dc.subjectTobacco smoke -- Toxicity testingen_GB
dc.subjectSmoking -- Health aspectsen_GB
dc.subjectAir -- Pollutionen_GB
dc.subjectNicotine addictionen_GB
dc.titleUbiquitous atmospheric contamination by tobacco smoke : nicotine and a new marker for tobacco smoke-derived particulate matter, nicotellineen_GB
dc.rights.holderThe copyright of this work belongs to the author(s)/publisher. The rights of this work are as defined by the appropriate Copyright Legislation or as modified by any successive legislation. Users may access this work and can make use of the information contained in accordance with the Copyright Legislation provided that the author must be properly acknowledged. Further distribution or reproduction in any format is prohibited without the prior permission of the copyright holder.en_GB
dc.publication.titleEnvironment Internationalen_GB
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