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Title: Combatting maritime cyber threats against commercial vessels : an analysis of legal response strategies
Authors: Abela, Celine (2021)
Keywords: Shipping -- Security measures
Computer networks -- Security measures -- Malta
Computer security -- Malta
Ships -- Automatic identification systems
Issue Date: 2021
Citation: Abela, C. (2021). Combatting maritime cyber threats against commercial vessels : an analysis of legal response strategies (Bachelor’s dissertation).
Abstract: Maritime cyber threats are a reality which the international maritime industry is facing on a daily basis. Maritime cyber threats are considered as contemporary threats to maritime safety and security, having the potential to disrupt critical infrastructures and international shipping. Commercial vessels have a plethora of technological systems on board however, the discussion in this dissertation is limited only to specific navigational systems. Navigational systems such as the Global Positioning System, Automatic Identification System and the Electronic Chart Display and Information System prove to be susceptible to cyber intrusions and therefore, expose maritime navigation to serious safety and security dangers. The IMO has adopted Resolution MSC.428(98) on Maritime Cyber Risk Management in Safety Management Systems envisaging the implementation of relevant cyber risk management measures by ship companies in ships’ Safety Management System until the first Document of Compliance after 1st January 2021. The Resolution is to be read in conjunction with IMO’s Maritime Cyber Risk Management Guidelines which provide recommendations to bolster maritime cyber resilience. However, these are non-binding instruments and retain a recommendatory nature only. Although current international frameworks, specifically the ISM Code and the SUA Convention, may be interpreted as catering for maritime cyber threats and risks through adopting a very wide interpretation of provisions, they fall short of providing any binding rules on maritime cyber risk management. As technology advances, maritime cyber risks increase and cyber-attack become more probable. Therefore, it is suggested that a new Code is added to the SOLAS Convention targeting cyber risk mitigation, based on the IMO Maritime Cyber Risk Management Guidelines and the BIMCO guidelines. State cooperation is also vital for a standard applicability of international regulations since cyber threats may affect several ports and vessels across the globe at once.
Description: LL.B.(Hons)(Melit.)
Appears in Collections:Dissertations - FacLaw - 2021

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