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dc.contributor.authorAxiak, Victor-
dc.contributor.authorMicallef, Diane-
dc.contributor.authorMuscat, Joanne-
dc.contributor.authorVella, Alfred J.-
dc.contributor.authorMintoff, Bernardette-
dc.identifier.citationAxiak, V., Micallef, D., Muscat, J., Vella, A., & Mintoff, B. (2003). Imposex as a biomonitoring tool for marine pollution by tributyltin: some further observations. Environment International, 28(8), 743-749.en_GB
dc.description.abstractImposex, i.e., the imposition of male sexual characteristics on female neograstropods, has been used worldwide as a bioindicator of pollution by the antifouling agent TBT as well as to assess the related ecological impact. The recent total ban on the use of TBT in the maritime industry has been partly based on the use of such a biomarker. This is mainly based on the assumption that no other pollutant, or environmental stress, is able to induce such a biological response. Nonetheless, several authors had challenged this idea. The present paper will present further field observations on imposex in Hexaplex trunculus from Malta (Central Mediterranean) which may help clarify this issue. Furthermore, the incidence of imposex in this species will be related to body burdens and to the environmental levels of organotins as measured analytically. First histological observations will also be presented which may help clarify the ecological significance of this response in this species. Finally a number of alternative scenarios regarding the relationship between imposex and TBT will be discussed.en_GB
dc.subjectAquatic ecologyen_GB
dc.subjectWater -- Pollutionen_GB
dc.titleImposex as a biomonitoring tool for marine pollution by tributyltin : some further observationsen_GB
dc.rights.holderThe copyright of this work belongs to the author(s)/publisher. The rights of this work are as defined by the appropriate Copyright Legislation or as modified by any successive legislation. Users may access this work and can make use of the information contained in accordance with the Copyright Legislation provided that the author must be properly acknowledged. Further distribution or reproduction in any format is prohibited without the prior permission of the copyright holder.en_GB
dc.publication.titleEnvironment Internationalen_GB
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