University of Malta

Study-Unit Description
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TITLE Elementary Statistical Theory

LEVEL 00 - Mod Pre-Tert, Foundation, Proficiency & DegreePlus


DEPARTMENT Statistics and Operations Research

DESCRIPTION - Sampling Techniques
- Sampling Distributions of Means, Differences of Means, Proportions and Differences of Proportions
- Inference through confidence Intervals
- Inference through hypothesis testing
- Parametric tests using SPSS including the One-Sample T-test, Paired Samples T-test, Independent Samples T-test and One-Way ANOVA test
- Correlation analysis to assess relationships between continuous variables
- Assessing discrepancy between observed and expected frequency using Chi-Square test

Study-unit Aims:

- Familiarize with different sampling techniques (Random, Systematic, Stratified and Cluster sampling).
- Derive sampling distributions for sample means, proportions, difference of means and difference of proportions.
- Determine sample size and address uncertainty by providing margin of errors.
- Carry out statistical inference using confidence intervals and hypothesis testing.
- Apply statistical tests (One-Sample, Independent Samples, Paired Samples t-tests and One-Way ANOVA test) to compare means between population parameters.
- Apply statistical test (Pearson correlation test) to assess the relationship between two variables having a metric scale.
- Apply statistical test (Chi Squared test) to assess the association between two categorical variables.
- Assess discrepancy between observed and expected frequencies.

Learning Outcomes:

1. Knowledge & Understanding:

By the end of the study-unit the student will be able to:
- Understand the difference between sample statistics and population parameters.
- Familiarize with different sampling distributions of sample means, proportions, difference of means and difference of proportions.
- Familiarize with different ways of conducting statistical inference, mainly by computing confidence intervals and conducting hypothesis tests.
- Use statistical software (SPSS and EXCEL) to conduct hypothesis tests.

2. Skills:

By the end of the study-unit the student will be able to:
- Conduct statistical inference about a population parameter using sample statistics.
- Compute confidence interval for population means, proportions, difference of means, difference of proportions, variances and variance ratios.
- Use computer software, particularly SPSS and EXCEL, to conduct statistical test including the One Sample t-test, Independent Samples t-test, Paired Samples t-test, Chi Squared test, Pearson Correlation test and the One-Way ANOVA test.

Main Text/s and any supplementary readings:

- Freund, J. E. and Simon, G. A. (1995) Statistics – A First Course, Prentice Hall Inc.
- Speigel, M. R. (1979) Schaum’s Outline Series: Theory & Problems of Statistics – McGraw-Hill.
- Sander, D. (1995) Statistics - A First Course – McGraw-Hill.
- Freund, J. E. and Simon, G. A. (1997) Modern Elementary Statistics, Prentice Hall Inc.
- Wardlaw, A. C. (1999) Practical Statistics for Experimental Biologists - Second Edition, Wiley.
- Campbell, R. C. (1989) Statistics for Biologists – Third Edition, Cambridge University Press.
- Newbold, P. (1995) Statistics for Business and Economics – Fourth Edition, Prentice Hall Inc.
- Barrow, M. (2001) Statistics for Economics, Accounting and Business Studies, Financial Times Prentice Hall Inc.
- Knapp, R. G. (1984) Basic Statistics for Nurses – Second Edition, Delmar.
- Finkelstein, M. and Levin, B. (2001) Statistics for Lawyers – Second Edition, Springer.
- Ross, Sheldon M. (2005) Introductory Statistics – Second Edition, Academic Press.


ADDITIONAL NOTES Statistics study-units for students with limited Mathematics background not exceeding 'O' Level Mathematics. This study-unit is not for students taking Statistics & OR as one of the principal subject area.

STUDY-UNIT TYPE Lectures, Tutorials & Computer Lab Sessions

Assessment Component/s Resit Availability Weighting
Computer-based Examination (1 Hour and 30 Minutes) Yes 100%


The University makes every effort to ensure that the published Courses Plans, Programmes of Study and Study-Unit information are complete and up-to-date at the time of publication. The University reserves the right to make changes in case errors are detected after publication.
The availability of optional units may be subject to timetabling constraints.
Units not attracting a sufficient number of registrations may be withdrawn without notice.
It should be noted that all the information in the study-unit description above applies to the academic year 2017/8, if study-unit is available during this academic year, and may be subject to change in subsequent years.
MSc (Research) and PhD application deadlines
Application Deadlines for Academic Year 2017/18 
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