CODE  PHY3225  
TITLE  Fluid Mechanics  
LEVEL  03  Years 2, 3, 4 in Modular Undergraduate Course  
ECTS CREDITS  4  
DEPARTMENT  Physics  
DESCRIPTION  This studyunit provides a broad introduction to fluid mechanics. It is composed of (i) basic concepts of fluid mechanics, (ii) brief mathematical concepts, (iii) detailed understanding of the Kinematics and Conservation laws in FM, (iv) various applications of the governing equations particularly the Bernoulli Principle, vortex dynamics, dynamic similarity and boundary layer approximation. The fundamental fluid processes in simple and everyday applications will be clearly explained and discussed, for example the aerodynamics of aeroplanes and sports cars, the effect of different sports balls moving in air, river flows, and atmospheric and oceanographic flows. Studyunit Aims: Through this studyunit, the student will be introduced to the basics of Fluid Mechanics. Goals include its Kinematics and Conservation Laws: understanding Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions and deriving the continuity equation (conservation of mass) and NavierStokes equation (conservation of momentum). Another objective of this course involves the applications of the fluid governing equations such as the derivation of Bernoulli equation and its application; the derivation of the momentum principle for a fixed volume and its applications; the derivation of the angular momentum principle for a fixed volume and its applications. The equations and applications in Vortex Dynamics, Dynamic Similarity and Similarity Solutions will be studied and discussed in detail. Finally, laminar and turbulent flows will be analysed, with the of aim of understanding the boundary layer approximation. Particular focus will be dedicated on aerodynamics of planes and sport cars. Learning Outcomes: 1. Knowledge & Understanding By the end of the studyunit the student will be able to:  define shear stress, viscosity and surface tension;  define and use the Gauss and Stokes theorems;  define streamline, path line and streak line;  distinguish between the Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions;  identify the physical meaning of the various terms of the NavierStokes equation;  identify the physical meaning of the various terms of the mechanical energy equation;  define the Boussinesq approximation;  state and use Kelvin’s circulation theorem and the Helmholtz vortex theorem;  identify the physical meaning of the various terms of the Vorticity Equation;  classify events as high or low Reynold’s number events;  explain the use of similarity solutions;  state and justify the boundary layer approximation;  explain how separation occurs. 2. Skills By the end of the studyunit the student will be able to:  determine the dot and cross products of vectors;  use matrix algebra on a given matrix;  determine the Gradient, the Divergence and the Curl of a quantity;  use tensors algebra on a given tensor;  use the comma notation as applied to tensors;  derive the continuity equation from the principle of Conservation of Mass (both for Lagrangian and Eulerian form);  derive the Cauchy’s equation from the principle of Conservation of Momentum;  derive the NavierStokes equation;  solve problems dealing with the Bernoulli equation and momentum principle (and angular momentum principle) for a fixed volume;  explain how to apply the Boussinesq approximation;  derive and describe the Kelvin’s circulation theorem;  use Buckingham’s Pi theorem to identify nondimensional parameter of a system;  use model testing to solve problems;  obtain the velocity and other properties of different steady flows between parallel plates;  derive the velocity equation for problems with time scale and/or length scale. Main Text/s and any supplementary readings: Recommended textbooks:  Fluid Mechanics. Kundu P.K., Cohen I.M., and Dowling D.R. (2011), 920 pp., ISBN13: 9780123821003.  Essential Computational Fluid Dynamics. Zikanov O. (2010), ISBN 9780470423295.  Fundamental of Fluid Mechanics. Munson B.R., Young D.F., Okiishi T.H., and Huebsch W.W. (2009), ISBN 9780470262849.  Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics: Fundamentals and Largescale Circulation. GK Vallis. (2006), 745 pp., ISBN13: 9780521849692. The use of other books with similar content would be equivalently good. 

ADDITIONAL NOTES  PreRequisite: Good knowledge of Mathematics including calculus  
STUDYUNIT TYPE  Lecture  
METHOD OF ASSESSMENT 


LECTURER/S  Anthony Galea 

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The availability of optional units may be subject to timetabling constraints. Units not attracting a sufficient number of registrations may be withdrawn without notice. It should be noted that all the information in the studyunit description above applies to the academic year 2019/0, if studyunit is available during this academic year, and may be subject to change in subsequent years. 