Study-Unit Description

Study-Unit Description


TITLE Introduction to Diagnostic Ultrasound for Podiatry

LEVEL 03 - Years 2, 3, 4 in Modular Undergraduate Course


DEPARTMENT Radiography

DESCRIPTION Since its introduction, ultrasound has found widespread application in anatomical imaging, blood-flow measurement, and evaluation of physiology in almost all aspects of medicine. As ultrasound units have become smaller, less expensive, and easier to use, diagnostic ultrasound has become increasingly popular among a wide variety of health professionals. Ultrasound imaging techniques have replaced or complemented other imaging procedures and has opened new areas of diagnostic investigation. Good medical practice requires ultrasonography practitioners to consider the risks and benefits of diagnostic examinations, and to optimise scan techniques to ensure maximum patient benefit with minimum risk.
For Podiatry diagnostic ultrasound is considered as the primary imaging modality for the detection of musculo-skeletal conditions and pathologies and will be able to evaluate the use of ultrasound scanning in their own profession.

This study-unit will provide an introduction to this imaging modality to podiatry students whose scope of practice includes ultrasound scanning as a future qualified specialist in this field after obtaining a Postgraduate qualification in the area.

It will focus on the general principles of diagnostic ultrasound imaging, such as understanding the way ultrasound works, procedures taken to generate consistent, good quality imaging of the various structures within the scope of practice of their profession, and the pathway to adopt to develop clinical appreciation in diagnostic ultrasound practice.

The study-unit is made up of lectures, tutorials, clinical demonstrations and clinical placements under the supervision of qualified radiographers and sonographers where students can discuss issues related to devices, physical principles, safe use of devices and ancillary equipment and clinical applications as well as pattern recognition and abnormality detection in US.

The study-unit is intended to help podiatry students explore the various common pathologies caused by trauma or repetitive strain, such as Morton's neuroma, synovitis of the MTPJ, tendinopathies, cysts, fibromas, plantar fasciopathies, heel spurs, foreign bodies, ligamentous damage and bursopathies. This study-unit also discuss the role of other imaging modalities.

This study-unit will use part of the approved study unit RAD3328 Devices and Clinical Applications of Ultrasound and Unsealed Radionuclides. The lecture sessions in devices will be delivered to all the students following this study-unit.

Study-Unit Aims:

Core - common to study-unit RAD3328 Devices lectures
    - To explain the principles of the function of diagnostic ultrasound scanners;
    - To demonstrate the practical use of diagnostic Ultrasound scanners and any ancillary equipment required for safe practice; and
    - To demonstrate the safe use of the diagnostic ultrasound scanners focusing on patient care.

This study-unit aims to introduce students to the use of diagnostic ultrasound in their professional practice. It will help students gain knowledge on the application and functions of this diagnostic tool and appreciate the diagnostic value of ultrasound in various pathologies related to the various body parts in accordance with their scope of practice.

This study-unit will also make students aware of issues related to the appropriate use of diagnostic ultrasound in the diagnosis of various musculo skeletal conditions.

Learning Outcomes:

1. Knowledge & Understanding:

By the end of the study-unit the student will be able to:

Core - Devices:
- Discuss Ultrasound scanning with respect to its advantages and disadvantages with other modes of imaging;
- Demonstrate knowledge regarding the biological effects and safety of Ultrasound
- Discuss the safe use of ultrasound in terms of protocol optimisation and use of contrast agents;
- Demonstrate an understanding of the physics principles of Ultrasound;
- Discuss the basis of good quality image formation in diagnostic Ultrasound;
- Describe the different types of transducers and other essential Ultrasound parameters and their clinical application;
- Discuss ethical issues related to the prudent use of Ultrasound; and
- Evaluate the contribution of the multidisciplinary team.

By the end of the study-unit the Podiatry student will also be able to:
- Determine the clinical indication of the use of diagnostic ultrasound imaging;
- Appreciate the appearance of normal and abnormal anatomy demonstrated on ultrasound images of the foot and ankle; and
- Critically evaluate reported sonographic findings to allow for better liaison with specialist and non-specialist audiences.

2. Skills:

By the end of the study-unit the student will be able to:

Core - Devices:
- Apply principles of ultrasound safety into practice with regards to frequency and duration of ultrasound examination/s;
- Demonstrate a basic level of knowledge of machine setup and transducer placement to obtain a good quality image;
- Recognise the clinical implications of normal and abnormal findings, documentation, communication, consultation; and
- Demonstrate skills in client education when explaining an ultrasound procedure and when communicating ultrasound findings.

By the end of the study-unit the Podiatry student will be able to:

- Appreciate diagnostic ultrasound as an important diagnostic tool in foot and ankle pathology; abd
- Demonstrate a basic ability to differentiate between normal and abnormal foot and ankle sonograms.

Main Text/s and any supplementary readings:

Main Texts:

- Hoskins, P. R., Martin, K., & Thrush, A. (Eds.). (2010). Diagnostic ultrasound: physics and equipment (2nd 2nd Eed). Cambridge, UK ; New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Bradley, M., O'Donnell, P., (2010). Atlas of Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Anatomy 2ndnd Edition. Cambridge University Press.
- Jacobson, JA., (20182017). Fundamentals of Musculoskeletal Ultrasound, 3rd Edition.Ed Philadelphia: Elsevier.
- McNally, E., (2014). Practical Musculoskeletal Ultrasound, 2nd Edition. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone
- Adler, R., Sofka, C.M. and Positano, R.G., (2004). Atlas of Foot and Ankle Sonography. Philadelphia: P Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Supplementary Readings:

- Bushberg J.T. (2011) The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging 3rd Ed. lippincott
- Ball. J., Moore, A.D. & Turner, S. (2008). Essential Physics for Radiographers. (4th Ededition) Oxford:Wiley Blackwell Science

ADDITIONAL NOTES Please note that a pass in the Examination component is obligatory for an overall pass mark to be awarded.

STUDY-UNIT TYPE Lecture, Fieldwork, Independent Study & Placement

Assessment Component/s Assessment Due Resit Availability Weighting
Presentation (20 Minutes) SEM2 Yes 40%
Examination [See Add. Notes] (1 Hour) SEM2 Yes 60%
Important - Due to the COVID19 Pandemic the information regarding the method of assessment indicated above may have been changed. Further details have been provided by your F/I/C/S.

LECTURER/S Mona Lisa Camilleri
Christopher Fenech
Alfred Gatt
Natalino Carmelo Pennisi

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The availability of optional units may be subject to timetabling constraints.
Units not attracting a sufficient number of registrations may be withdrawn without notice.
It should be noted that all the information in the study-unit description above applies to the academic year 2019/0, if study-unit is available during this academic year, and may be subject to change in subsequent years.