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Title: National character does not reflect mean personality trait levels in 49 cultures
Authors: Terracciano, Antonio
Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.
Adam, N.
Adamovova, Lucia
Ahn, Changkyu
Ahn, Hyunnie
Alansari, Bader Mohammed
Alcalay, Lidia
Allik, Juri
Angleitner, Alois
Avia, Maria Dolores
Ayearst, Lindsay E.
Barbaranelli, Claudio
Beer, Andrew
Borg-Cunen, Mary Ann
Bratko, Denis
Brunner-Sciarra, Marina
Budzinski, Louisa
Camart, Nathalie
Dahourou, Donatien
De Fruyt, Filip K.
Lima, Margarida Pedroso de
Pilar, Gregorio E. H. del
Diener, Edward
Falzon, Ruth
Fernando, Kumari L.
Fickova, Emilia
Fischer, Ronald
Flores-Mendoza, Carmen Elvira
Ghayur, Arif M.
Gulgoz, Sami
Hagberg, Bo O.
Halberstadt, Jamin Brett
Halim, M. S.
Hrebickova, Martina
Humrichouse, John
Jensen, Hans Henrik
Jocic, Dragana Djuric
Jonsson, Fridrik H.
Khoury, Brigitte A.
Klinkosz, Waldemar
Knezevic, Goran
Lauri, Mary Anne
Leibovich, Nora B.
Martin, Thomas A.
Marusic, Iris
Mastor, Khairul Anwar
Matsumoto, David
McRorie, Margaret
Meshcheriakov, B.
Mortensen, Erik Lykke
Munyae, Margaret M.
Nagy, Janos
Nakazato, Katsuharu
Nansubuga, Florence
Oishi, Shigheiro
Ojedokun, Akanmu O.
Ostendorf, Fritz
Paulhus, Delroy L.
Pelevin, S.
Petot, Jean Michel
Podobnik, Nuska
Porrata, Jose Luis
Pramila, V. S.
Prentice, Carla
Realo, Anu
Reategui, Norma
Rolland, Jean Pierre
Rossier, Jerome Ome
Ruch, Willibald
Rus, Velko S.
Sanchez-Bernardos, Maria Luisa
Schmidt, Vanina I.
Sciculna-Calleja, S.
Sekowski, Andrzej
Shakespeare-Finch, Jane
Shimonaka, Yoshiko
Simonetti, Franco
Sineshaw, Tilahun
Siuta, Jerzy
Smith, Peter B.
Trapnell, Paul D.
Trobst, Krista K.
Wang, L.
Yik, Michelle
Zupancic, Agata
McCrae, Robert R.
Keywords: Personality
National characteristics
Issue Date: 2005
Publisher: The American Association for the Advancement of Science
Citation: Terracciano, A., Abdel-Khalek, A M., Adam, N., Adamovova. L., Ahn, C.-K., Ahn, H.-N.,…McCrae, R.R. (2005). National character does not reflect mean personality trait levels in 49 cultures. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5745), 96-100.
Abstract: Most people hold beliefs about personality characteristics typical of members of their own and others' cultures. These perceptions of national character may be generalizations from personal experience, stereotypes with a "kernel of truth," or inaccurate stereotypes. We obtained national character ratings of 3989 people from 49 cultures and compared them with the average personality scores of culture members assessed by observer ratings and self-reports. National character ratings were reliable but did not converge with assessed traits. Perceptions of national character thus appear to be unfounded stereotypes that may serve the function of maintaining a national identity.
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