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Title: Multi-turn losses and cleaning
Authors: Wollmann, Daniel
Assmann, Ralph W.
Bellodi, Giulia
Bruce, Roderik
Cauchi, M.
Jowett, John M.
Redaelli, Stefano
Rossi, Adriana
Valentino, Gianluca
Keywords: Large Hadron Collider (France and Switzerland)
Colliders (Nuclear physics)
Principal components analysis
Collimators (Optical instrument) -- Calibration
Proton beams -- Measurement
Particle accelerators
Issue Date: 2010
Publisher: CERN
Citation: Wollmann, D., Assmann, R.W., Bellodi, G., Bruce, R., Cauchi, M., Jowett, J.M.,,... Valentino, G. (2010). Multi-turn losses and cleaning. Geneva.
Abstract: In the LHC all multi-turn losses should occur at the collimators in the cleaning insertions. The cleaning inefficiency (leakage rate) is the figure of merit to describe the performance. In combination with the quench limit of the superconducting magnets and the instantaneous life time of the beam this defines the cleaning dependent beam intensity limit of the LHC. In addition, limits can arise from radiation-induced effects, like radiation damage and radation to electronics. In this paper the used collimator settings, the required setup time, the reliability of collimation (all multi-turn losses at collimators), and the achieved proton/ion cleaning inefficiency are discussed. Observed and expected losses are compared. The performance evolution during the months of operation is reviewed. In addition, the peak losses during high intensity runs, losses caused by instabilities, and the resulting beam life times are discussed. Taking the observations into account the intensity reach with collimation at 3.5 and 4 TeV is reviewed.
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