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Title: Consumption of antibiotics within ambulatory care in Malta
Authors: Zarb, Peter
Borg, Michael Angelo
Keywords: Antibiotics -- Drug utilization -- Malta
Antibiotics -- Drug utilization -- Monitoring
Ambulatory medical care -- Malta
Issue Date: 2011
Publisher: Malta Medical Journal
Citation: Malta Medical Journal. 2011, Vol.23(2), p. 13-18
Abstract: Background: Antibiotic use is recognised as the most important driver for the development of antimicrobial resistance in community pathogens. Surveillance is therefore critical for improvement programmes. Methods: Antimicrobial distribution data for the years 2007 to 2009 were collected retrospectively by the National Antibiotic Committee from all licensed wholesale distributors (WSL) in Malta and analysed according the World Health Organization Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification (ATC) level 4 criteria. Results: Overall consumption increased from 18.6 defined-daily-doses/1000-inhabitant-days (DID) in 2007 to 22.7 DID in 2008 and reached 24.4 DID in 2009 - an increase of more than 30% over the three years, Penicillins with beta-lactamase inhibitor increased in volume (7.1 to 8.8 DID) but decreased in proportion (38.4% to 36.0%) between 2007 and 2009. On the other hand, second generation cephalosporins increased in both volume and proportion (2.8 to 5.4 DID; 15.0% to 22.0%). The proportion for macrolides remained stable at approximately 16% but the volume of use again increased (2.9 DID to 3.9 DID). Fluoroquinolone proportion decreased from 9.1% to 6.8%, maintaining a stable volume of use in the region of 1.7 DID. Conclusions: Antibiotic consumption in Malta has shown a consistent increasing trend over the past three years, despite a reduction in over-the-counter acquisition. Furthermore, there is evidence of a strong, and possibly unjustified, prescription of wide spectrum antibacterials. This is potentially an important driver for documented resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli and needs to be addressed at a national level.
Appears in Collections:MMJ, Volume 23, Issue 2
MMJ, Volume 23, Issue 2
Scholarly Works - FacM&SCPT
Scholarly Works - FacM&SPat

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