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Title: The effect of mixing method on tricalcium silicate-based cement
Authors: Duque, Jussaro Alves
Fernandes, Samuel Lucas
Bubola, J. P.
Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro
Camilleri, Josette
Marciano, Marina Angelica
Keywords: Endodontics
Dental materials
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Citation: Duque, J. A., Fernandes, S. L., Bubola, J. P., Duarte, M. A. H., Camilleri, J., & Marciano, M. A. (2017). The effect of mixing method on tricalcium silicate‐based cement. International Endodontic Journal.
Abstract: Aim: To evaluate the effect of three methods of mixing on the physical and chemical properties of tricalcium silicate-based cements. Methodology: The materials evaluated were MTA Angelus and Portland cement with 20% zirconium oxide (PC-20-Zr). The cements were mixed using a 3: 1 powder-to-liquid ratio. The mixing methods were manual (m), trituration (tr) and ultrasonic (us) activation. The materials were characterized by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Flowability was analysed according to ANSI/ADA 57/2012. Initial and final setting times were assessed following ASTM C266/08. Volume change was evaluated using a micro-CT volumetric method. Solubility was analysed according to ADA 57/2012. pH and calcium ion release were measured after 3, 24, 72 and 168 h. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way analysis of variance. The level of significance was set at P = 0.05. Results: The SEM analysis revealed that ultrasonic activation was associated with a homogeneous distribution of particles. Flowability, volume change and initial setting time were not influenced by the mixing method (P > 0.05). Solubility was influenced by the mixing method (P < 0.05). For pH, at 168 h, significant differences were found between MTA-m and PC-20-Zr-m (P < 0.05). For calcium ion release, PC-20-Zr-tr had higher values than MTA-m at 3 h, and MTA-tr had higher values than PC-20-Zr-m at 168 h (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The ultrasonic and trituration methods led to higher calcium ion release and pH compared with manual mixing for all cements, whilst the ultrasonic method produced smaller particles for the PC-20-Zr cement. Flow, setting times and volume change were not influenced by the mixing method used; however, it did have an impact on solubility.
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