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Title: Improving the conservation of Mediterranean Chondrichthyans : the ELASMOMED DNA barcode reference library
Authors: Cariani, Alessia
Messinetti, Silvia
Ferrari, Alice
Arculeo, Marco
Bonello, Juan José
Bonnici, Leanne
Cannas, Rita
Carbonara, Pierluigi
Cau, Alessandro
Charilaou, Charis
El Ouamari, Najib
Fiorentino, Fabio
Follesa, Maria Cristina
Garofalo, Germana
Golani, Daniel
Guarniero, Ilaria
Hanner, Robert
Hemida, Farid
Kada, Omar
Brutto, Sabrina Lo
Mancusi, Cecilia
Morey, Gabriel
Schembri, Patrick J.
Serena, Fabrizio
Sion, Letizia
Stagioni, Marco
Tursi, Angelo
Vrgoc, Nedo
Steinke, Dirk
Tinti, Fausto
Keywords: Chondrichthyes
Marine biodiversity conservation
DNA data banks
DNA barcoding, Taxonomic
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Citation: Cariani, A., Messinetti, S., Ferrari, A., Arculeo, M., Bonello, J. J., Bonnici, L., ... & El Ouamari, N. (2017). Improving the conservation of Mediterranean Chondrichthyans: the ELASMOMED DNA barcode reference library. PLoS ONE, 12, 1.
Abstract: Cartilaginous fish are particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic stressors and environmental change because of their K-selected reproductive strategy. Accurate data from scientific surveys and landings are essential to assess conservation status and to develop robust protection and management plans. Currently available data are often incomplete or incorrect as a result of inaccurate species identifications, due to a high level of morphological stasis, especially among closely related taxa. Moreover, several diagnostic characters clearly visible in adult specimens are less evident in juveniles. Here we present results generated by the ELASMOMED Consortium, a regional network aiming to sample and DNA-barcode the Mediterranean Chondrichthyans with the ultimate goal to provide a comprehensive DNA barcode reference library. This library will support and improve the molecular taxonomy of this group and the effectiveness of management and conservation measures. We successfully barcoded 882 individuals belonging to 42 species (17 sharks, 24 batoids and one chimaera), including four endemic and several threatened ones. Morphological misidentifications were found across most orders, further confirming the need for a comprehensive DNA barcoding library as a valuable tool for the reliable identification of specimens in support of taxonomist who are reviewing current identification keys. Despite low intraspecific variation among their barcode sequences and reduced samples size, five species showed preliminary evidence of phylogeographic structure. Overall, the ELASMOMED initiative further emphasizes the key role accurate DNA barcoding libraries play in establishing reliable diagnostic species specific features in otherwise taxonomically problematic groups for biodiversity management and conservation actions.
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