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Title: Learning deep physiological models of affect
Authors: Martinez, Hector P.
Bengio, Yoshua
Yannakakis, Georgios N.
Keywords: Computer games -- Physiological aspects
Neural networks (Computer science)
Galvanic skin response
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Citation: Martinez, H. P., Bengio, Y., & Yannakakis, G. N. (2013). Learning deep physiological models of affect. IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine, 8(2), 20-33.
Abstract: Feature extraction and feature selection are crucial phases in the process of affective modeling. Both, however, incorporate substantial limitations that hinder the development of reliable and accurate models of affect. For the purpose of modeling affect manifested through physiology, this paper builds on recent advances in machine learning with deep learning (DL) approaches. The efficiency of DL algorithms that train artificial neural network models is tested and compared against standard feature extraction and selection approaches followed in the literature. Results on a game data corpus — containing players’ physiological signals (i.e. skin conductance and blood volume pulse) and subjective self-reports of affect — reveal that DL outperforms manual ad-hoc feature extraction as it yields significantly more accurate affective models. Moreover, it appears that DL meets and even outperforms affective models that are boosted by automatic feature selection, for several of the scenarios examined. As the DL method is generic and applicable to any affective modeling task, the key findings of the paper suggest that ad-hoc feature extraction and selection — to a lesser degree — could be bypassed.
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