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Title: Waste management of pharmaceuticals in the local environment
Authors: Baldacchino, Lorraine (2013)
Keywords: Refuse and refuse disposal
Hazardous wastes -- Law and legislation -- European Union countries
Issue Date: 2013
Citation: Baldacchino, L. (2013). Waste management of pharmaceuticals in the local environment (Master's dissertation).
Abstract: Pharmaceuticals have been classified as emerging pollutants, affecting non-target organisms following exposure to these chemicals in the environment. The risks of pharmaceuticals are, to date, not fully understood. Evidence of adverse environmental effects, including male fish feminisation, and awareness about the fate and effects of phannaceuticals in the environment indicate that a precautionary approach needs to be adopted, in order to reduce the release of phannaceuticals into the environment. The scope of this study was to determine the level of environmental commitment from regulatory bodies, as well as to understand the level of awareness across different stakeholders on pharmaceuticals in the local environment, and what is being done in terms of legislation and enforcement. A desk study of European and local legislation regulating environmental pollution in the aquatic and terrestrial environments was performed. As a result, gaps that fail to address pharmaceutical environmental pollution in legislation and management action were identified. Furthermore, semi-structured interviews or questionnaires were used to collect data from 53 representatives of government bodies, health professionals and a spokesperson for a state hospital. The views from the general public were also evaluated, with data collected through 300 questionnaires. Pharmaceutical waste management practices currently in place indicate that there are both legislative and managerial gaps relating to the effective management of this waste stream. Results indicate a general lack of infonnation across stakeholders on the proper way to dispose of pharmaceuticals, except within pharmaceutical industries. Even though the government has established civic amenity sites that are able to accept pharmaceuticals from household waste, only few use this service. 51 % and 75% of the population of civil society dispose of liquid medicine and solid medicine respectively in the municipal solid waste bin. Although appropriate management and disposal is evidently needed, the research also raised several questions about local waste management throughout the life cycle of these products, with no apparent solution to the problem of their long-term disposal.
Appears in Collections:Dissertations - InsES - 1994-2013
Dissertations - InsESEMP - 2013

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