Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Title: Terrorist attacks and the male to female ratio at birth : the bombings of Madrid (3/2004) and London (7/2005)
Authors: Mamo, Julian
Grech, Victor E.
Keywords: Madrid Train Bombings, Madrid, Spain, 2004
Sex ratio -- Spain -- Madrid -- Statistics
Terrorism -- Spain -- Madrid -- History -- 21st century
London Terrorist Bombings, London, England, 2005
Sex ratio -- England -- London -- Statistics
Terrorism -- England -- London -- History -- 21st century
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Malta Medical Journal
Citation: Malta Medical Journal. 2016, Vol. 28(1), p. 52-55
Abstract: Introduction: Males are usually in excess of females at birth and the ratio is often expressed as M/F (male divided by total births). Several factors have been shown to be associated with changes in M/F, including major terrorist attacks. These are associated with a transient lowering of M/F for a one month period, three to five months after such events. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether the Madrid March 2004 bombings and the London July 2005 bombings were similarly associated with changes in M/F in their respective populations. Methods: Monthly live births by gender for Madrid and Spain for 2004 and for England and Wales for 2005 were obtained from the two countries’ National Statistics Offices. Results: There were no significant dips in M/F for any of the months following the March 2004 bombings in Madrid or in Spain. There were no significant dips in M/F for any of the months following the July 2005 London bombings. Discussion: Research to date has shown M/F dips following catastrophic or tragic events, including major terrorist actions with extensive media coverage. Equivalent dips were not noted in this study for the terrorist acts in these instances. The reasons for this may be one or a combination of the following. The population size was not sufficiently large in order to detect an M/F dip. Alternatively, the events were not felt to be sufficiently momentous by the populace such that an M/F dip was not produced. Yet another possibility is that these particular populations are somehow hardier and more resistant to such influences. Not all terrorist events universally cause a significant reduction in M/F.
Appears in Collections:MMJ, Volume 28, Issue 1
MMJ, Volume 28, Issue 1
Scholarly Works - FacM&SPH

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
Terrorist attacks and the male to female ratio at birth.pdf935.92 kBAdobe PDFView/Open

Items in OAR@UM are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.