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Title: Thermomechanical assessment of the effects of a jaw-beam angle during beam impact on Large Hadron Collider collimators
Authors: Cauchi, Marija
Wolfgang Assmann, Ralph
Bertarelli, Alessandro
Carra, Federico
Lari, Luisella
Rossi, Adriana
Mollicone, Pierluigi
Sammut, Nicholas
Keywords: Large Hadron Collider (France and Switzerland)
Collimators (Optical instrument)
Beam optics
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: American Physical Society
Citation: Cauhci, M., Wolfgang Assmann, R., Bertarelli, A., Carra, F., Lari, L., Rossi, A., Mollicone, P., & Sammut, N. (2015). Thermomechanical assessment of the effects of a jaw-beam angle during beam impact on Large Hadron Collider collimators. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, 18(2), 021001-1-14.
Abstract: The correct functioning of a collimation system is crucial to safely and successfully operate high-energy particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). However, the requirements to handle high- intensity beams can be demanding, and accident scenarios must be well studied in order to assess if the collimator design is robust against possible error scenarios. One of the catastrophic, though not very probable, accident scenarios identified within the LHC is an asynchronous beam dump. In this case, one (or more) of the 15 precharged kicker circuits fires out of time with the abort gap, spraying beam pulses onto LHC machine elements before the machine protection system can fire the remaining kicker circuits and bring the beam to the dump. If a proton bunch directly hits a collimator during such an event, severe beam-induced damage such as magnet quenches and other equipment damage might result, with consequent downtime for the machine. This study investigates a number of newly defined jaw error cases, which include angular misalignment errors of the collimator jaw. A numerical finite element method approach is presented in order to precisely evaluate the thermomechanical response of tertiary collimators to beam impact. We identify the most critical and interesting cases, and show that a tilt of the jaw can actually mitigate the effect of an asynchronous dump on the collimators. Relevant collimator damage limits are taken into account, with the aim to identify optimal operational conditions for the LHC.
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