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Title: Thermomechanical response of Large Hadron Collider collimators to proton and ion beam impacts
Authors: Cauchi, Marija
Wolfgang Assmann, Ralph
Bertarelli, Alessandro
Carra, Federico
Cerutti, Francesco
Lari, Luisella
Mollicone, Pierluigi
Redaelli, Stefano
Sammut, Nicholas
Keywords: Large Hadron Collider (France and Switzerland)
Collimators (Optical instrument)
Tungsten alloys -- Thermal properties
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: American Physical Society
Citation: Cauchi, M., Wolfgang Assmann, R., Bertarelli, A., Carra, F., Cerutti, F., Lari, L.,… Sammut, N. (2015). Thermomechanical response of Large Hadron Collider collimators to proton and ion beam impacts. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, 18(4), 041002-1-14.
Abstract: The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to accelerate and bring into collision high-energy protons as well as heavy ions. Accidents involving direct beam impacts on collimators can happen in both cases. The LHC collimation system is designed to handle the demanding requirements of high-intensity proton beams. Although proton beams have 100 times higher beam power than the nominal LHC lead ion beams, specific problems might arise in case of ion losses due to different particle-collimator interaction mechanisms when compared to protons. This paper investigates and compares direct ion and proton beam impacts on collimators, in particular tertiary collimators (TCTs), made of the tungsten heavy alloy INERMET 180. Recent measurements of the mechanical behavior of this alloy under static and dynamic loading conditions at different temperatures have been done and used for realistic estimates of the collimator response to beam impact. Using these new measurements, a numerical finite element method (FEM) approach is presented in this paper. Sequential fast-transient thermostructural analyses are performed in the elastic-plastic domain in order to evaluate and compare the thermomechanical response of TCTs in case of critical beam load cases involving proton and heavy ion beam impacts.
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