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Title: Outdoor PM2.5 chemical composition in 3 areas with urban/rural difference in prevalence of respiratory diseases
Authors: Cibella, Fabio
Balzan, Martin V.
Perrino, Cinzia
Scaccianoce, Gianluca
Bilocca, David
Zammit, Christopher
Drago, Gaspare
Ruggieri, Silvia
Canepari, Silvia
Minardi, Remo
Montefort, Stephen
Viegi, Giovanni
Keywords: Air -- Pollution -- Malta
Atmospheric deposition -- Malta
Asthma -- Malta
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: European Respiratory Society
Citation: Cibella, F., Balzan, M. V., Perrino, C., Scaccianoce, G., Bilocca, D., Zammit, C.,…Viegi, G. (2015). Outdoor PM2.5 Chemical composition in 3 areas with urban/rural difference in prevalence of respiratory diseases. European Respiratory Journal, 46(59).
Abstract: RESPIRA Study showed living in Malta (urban), Gela (industrial) is a risk for respiratory symptoms compared to rural south Sicily. Aim: To chemically analyze outdoor PM2.5 in these locations. Method: FAI pumps at 10l/min and Teflon(Whatman) filters collected PM2.5 for 48 hours, Malta(n=54), Gela(n=42) and rural areas (n=42), including schools and homes. The ionic component of ICP-MS extraction was measured at CNR Rome. Aeroqual IQM60 measured PM2.5 levels in Malta. PM2.5 in Sicily was calculated from filter weights. Results: Outdoor PM2.5 Malta(n=53) Mean41.1 µg/m3, Median29.7, Q1-13.9, Q3-57.7, p<0.001, Gela(n=34) MN 16 µg/m3, MD 15.1, Q1 12.1, Q3 19.1 P<0.01 and Rural (n=35) MN 12.36, MD 11.28, Q1 9.4, Q3 14.2. Chemical analysis showed higher metal levels in Malta and Gela compared to rural. (Malta, Gela, rural, mean and (Median) in ng/m3) of V 4.0(1.76), 2.3(1.50), 0.6(0.27), Ni 2.18(1.37), 0.98(0.82), 0.47(0.64), Cd 0.32(0.07), 0.11(0.072), 0.05(0.027), Pb 1.39(1.01), 0.91(0.81), 0.39(0.29), Fe 45.0(27.76), 3.5(3.05), 3.5(1.03), Cu 3.49(1.22), 1.44(1.07), 1.09(0.56), Sr 1.21(0.14), 0.18(0.075), 0.5(0.078), Ba 1.08(0.52), 0.36(0.25), 0.04(0.06), Sn 0.1(0.059), 0.053(0.032), 0.04(0.0035), Mn 1.01(0.8), 1.37(1.19), 0.66(0.41). Sulphur 460(209), 741(705) 342(202), and Antimony Sb 0.42(0.18), 0.72(0.85) 0.22(0.19) were higher in Gela. No difference noted for As 0.19(0.13), 0.19(0.19), 0.17(0.17), Rb 0.37(0.18), 0.45(0.37), 0.53(0.33). Conclusion: Malta with risk for asthma symptoms, had higher PM2.5 level and most heavy metals. Gela with risk for rhinoconjuctivitis had higher level of sulphur content.
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