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Title: Predictors of headache in urban and rural setting from respiratory questionnaires in children aged 10-15
Authors: Balzan, Martin
Cibella, Fabio
Zammit, Christopher
Ruggieri, Silvia
Bilocca, David
Minardi, Remo
Drago, Gaspare
Cuttita, Giuseppina
Montefort, Stephen
Viegi, Giovanni
Keywords: Headache in children
Asthma in children
Air -- Pollution
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: European Respiratory Society
Citation: Balzan, M., Cibella, F., Zammit, C., Ruggieri, S., Bilocca, D., Minardi, R.,… Viegi, G. (2015). Predictors of headache in urban and rural setting from respiratory questionnaires in children aged 10-15. European Respiratory Journal, 46(59).
Abstract: Intro: Headache is a very common complaint detected in children by respiratory questionnaires. Aim: To determine possible respiratory predictors of headache in children aged 10-15 using a binary regression model. Method: In the RESPIRA study questionnaires were collected from parents of 2051 children aged 10-15, Malta n=860, Gela=594, and Rural south Sicily n=597. The question was “During the past three months, has your child had any of the following symptoms ? Headache. 889(48.6%,CI46.5-50.8) complained of headache, 2.9% daily, 8.3% often, 37.5% sometimes. Binary logistic model predictors were: Nasal symptoms in the last 12 months OR1.35 (95%CI1.03-1.75, p=0.031), Eye symptoms 12m, 1.63(1.15-2.32, p=0.005), Asthma Medication 12m OR 1.48(1.03-2.14, p=0.036), Nocturnal cough 12m 1.46(1.17-1.8, p=0.001), Male Gender 0.66 (0.55-0.79, p=0.001), Age in years 1.23(1.12-1.35, p=0.001), Dampness or mould in bedroom 1.32(1.01-17.17, p=0.038), quantity of cigarettes smoked in the house on a scale of 0-6 1.09(1.02-1.17, p=0.016). Other possible predictors, were: Resp Infection 1st year of life 1.24(0.99-1.54, p=0.06), diagnosed rhinitis 1.27(0.99-1.63, p=0.06), cat ownership 0.76(0.55-1.05, p=0.09, living close to traffic 1-3, 1.01(1.0-1.02 p=0.09). Living in Malta(p=0.67) or Gela(p=0.64), parent education level (p=0.51) were not significant predictors. Conclusion: Age, female gender, nasal and eye symptoms, asthma medication, dampness or mould in bedroom and passive smoking at home were the main predictors of headache in 10-15 year old children
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