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Title: Transitions in European land-management regimes between 1800 and 2010
Authors: Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck
Kuemmerle, Tobias
Müller, Daniel
Erb, Karlheinz
Verburg, Peter H.
Haberl, Helmut
Vesterager, Peter
Andrič, Maja
Antrop, Marc
Austrheim, Gunnar
Björn, Ismo
Bondeau, Alberte
Bürgi, Matthias
Bryson, Jessica
Caspar, Gilles
Cassar, Louis F.
Conrad, Elisabeth
Chromy, Pavel
Daugirdas, Vidmantas
Van Eetvelde, Veerle
Elena-Rosselló, Ramon
Gimmi, Urs
Izakovicova, Zita
Jancak, Vít
Jansson, Ulf
Kladnik, Drago
Kozak, Jacek
Konkoly-Gyuró, Eva
Krausmann, Fridolin
Mander, Ülo
McDonagh, John
Pärn, Jaan
Niedertscheider, Maria
Nikodemus, Olgerts
Ostapowicz, Katarzyna
Pérez-Soba, Marta
Pinto-Correia, Teresa
Ribokas, Gintaras
Rounsevell, Mark
Schistou, Despoina
Schmit, Claude
Terkenli, Theano S.
Tretvik, Aud M.
Trzepacz, Piotr
Vadineau, Angheluta
Walz, Ariane
Zhllima, Edvin
Reenberg, Anette
Keywords: Environmental law -- European Union countries
Land use, Rural -- European Union countries
Regional planning -- European Union countries
Land use, Urban -- European Union countries -- Planning
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: Jepsen, M. R., Kuemmerle, T., Müller, D., Erb, K., Verburg, P. H., Haberl, H., ... & Björn, I. (2015). Transitions in European land-management regimes between 1800 and 2010. Land Use Policy, 49, 53-64.
Abstract: Land use is a cornerstone of human civilization, but also intrinsically linked to many global sustainabilitychallenges—from climate change to food security to the ongoing biodiversity crisis. Understanding theunderlying technological, institutional and economic drivers of land-use change, and how they play outin different environmental, socio-economic and cultural contexts, is therefore important for identify-ing effective policies to successfully address these challenges. In this regard, much can be learned fromstudying long-term land-use change. We examined the evolution of European land management overthe past 200 years with the aim of identifying (1) key episodes of changes in land management, and(2) their underlying technological, institutional and economic drivers. To do so, we generated narrativeselaborating on the drivers of land use-change at the country level for 28 countries in Europe. We qualita-tively grouped drivers into land-management regimes, and compared changes in management regimesacross Europe. Our results allowed discerning seven land-management regimes, and highlighted markedheterogeneity regarding the types of management regimes occurring in a particular country, the timingand prevalence of regimes, and the conditions that result in observed bifurcations. However, we alsofound strong similarities across countries in the timing of certain land-management regime shifts, oftenin relation to institutional reforms (e.g., changes in EU agrarian policies or the emergence and collapseof the Soviet land management paradigm) or to technological innovations (e.g., drainage pipes, tillageand harvesting machinery, motorization, and synthetic fertilizers). Land reforms frequently triggeredchanges in land management, and the location and timing of reforms had substantial impacts on land-use outcomes. Finally, forest protection policies and voluntary cooperatives were important drivers ofland-management changes. Overall, our results demonstrate that land-system changes should not be con-ceived as unidirectional developments following predefined trajectories, but rather as path-dependentprocesses that may be affected by various drivers, including sudden events.
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