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Title: Establishing differences in thermographic patterns between the various complications in diabetic foot disease
Authors: Gatt, Alfred
Falzon, Owen
Cassar, Kevin
Ellul, Christian
Camilleri, Kenneth P.
Gauci, Jean
Mizzi, Stephen
Mizzi, Anabelle
Sturgeon, Cassandra
Camilleri, Liberato
Chockalingam, Nachiappan
Formosa, Cynthia
Keywords: Diabetes -- Complications
Foot -- Diseases
Diabetic neuropathies
Foot -- Surgery
Diabetic foot
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Hindawi
Citation: Gatt, A., Falzon, O., Cassar, K., Ellul, C., Camilleri, K. P., Gauci, J., ... & Chockalingam, N. (2018). Establishing differences in thermographic patterns between the various complications in diabetic foot disease. International Journal of Endocrinology, 9808295.
Abstract: Aim. To evaluate the potential of thermography as an assessment tool for the detection of foot complications by understanding the variations in temperature that occur in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods. Participants were categorized according to a medical examination, ankle brachial index, doppler waveform analysis, and 10-gram monofilament testing into five groups: healthy adult, DM with no complications, DM with peripheral neuropathy, DM with neuroischaemia, and DM with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) groups. Thermographic imaging of the toes and forefeet was performed. Results. 43 neuroischaemic feet, 41 neuropathic feet, 58 PAD feet, 21 DM feet without complications, and 126 healthy feet were analyzed. The temperatures of the feet and toes were signi ficantly higher in the complications group when compared to the healthy adult and DM healthy groups. The higher the temperatures of the foot in DM, the higher the probability that it is affected by neuropathy, neuroischaemia, or PAD. Conclusions. Signi ficant differences in mean temperatures exist between participants who were healthy and those with DM with no known complications when compared to participants with neuroischaemia, neuropathy, or PAD. As foot temperature rises, so does the probability of the presence of complications of neuropathy, neuroischaemia, or peripheral arterial disease.
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