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Title: Financial assets, expected return and risk, speculation, uncertainty, and exchange rate determination
Authors: Kallianiotis, Ioannis N.
Bianchi, Karen
Arize, Augustine C.
Malindretos, John
Ndu, Ikechukwu
Keywords: Investments -- United States
Risk -- United States
Economics -- United States
Investments -- Europe
Risk -- Eurpe
Economics -- Europe
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: University of Piraeus. International Strategic Management Association
Citation: Kallianiotis, I. N., Bianchi, K., Arize, A. C., Malindretos, J., & Ndu, I. (2020). Financial assets, expected return and risk, speculation, uncertainty, and exchange rate determination. European Research Studies Journal, 23(3), 3-30.
Abstract: Purpose: The objective of this paper is to determine the movements (long-term trend) of the exchange rate by forecasting the rate of return and risk (return to variability ratio, RVR) that financial assets have in two economies and for four different investments. Design/Methodology/Approach: Risk averse speculators will try to maximize their return and minimize their risk by investing domestically or abroad, but these capital flows will affect the value of the two currencies (their exchange rate). Findings: The empirical results show that before 2001 the return in the U.S. was high and the dollar was appreciated; after 2001, the same return became negative and the dollar was depreciated, but after 2004 the returns have growing positively for the U.S., and the returns for the Euro-zone are falling. Practical Implications: We can say that the dollar may appreciate with respect to euro, except if we will have any other domestic or external shocks on the two economies. Still the results of this analysis are not very conclusive. Originality/value: International investors are investing in countries with higher return and lower risk. This increase in demand for these assets, increases the demand for currency in that country and its currency is appreciated.
ISSN: 11082976
Appears in Collections:European Research Studies Journal, Volume 23, Issue 3

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