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Title: Numerical simulation of long rods impacted by particle beams
Authors: Portelli, Marcus
Bertarelli, Alessandro
Carra, Federico
Mettler, L. K.
Mollicone, Pierluigi
Sammut, Nicholas
Keywords: Colliders (Nuclear physics)
Collimators (Optical instrument)
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: American Physical Society
Citation: Portelli, M., Bertarelli, A., Carra, F., Mettler, L. K., Mollicone, P., & Sammut, N. (2018). Numerical simulation of long rods impacted by particle beams. Physical Review Accelerators and Beams, 21(6), 063501.
Abstract: Analytical solutions detailing the propagation of longitudinal waves in slender rods subjected to a sudden increase of internal energy provide simple tools for the calculation of the temperature distribution in impacted rods as well as the resulting mechanical response. The topic is of great interest in particle accelerator technology, especially with regards to collimation systems, where beam intercepting devices can be generally approximated to one-dimensional (1D) elements potentially subjected, in accidental scenarios, to abrupt thermal energy depositions induced by the impacting particles. In this study, two finite element numerical models are presented and compared to the analytical solutions by Bertarelli, Dallocchio and Kurtyka, discussing the rapid temperature increase in slender rods due to particle beam impacts and the resulting dynamic longitudinal response. The first model is a sequentially coupled thermomechanical analysis; the second is based on a modal analysis to find the harmonic response of the system. The results indicate that phenomena neglected in analytical solutions, primarily dispersion of the longitudinal wave due to interactions with the free external surface of the rod, can be included in numerical models and can be observed in simulation results. The study further shows how numerical methods can be utilized to predict the frequencies and amplitudes of high-frequency disturbances in the longitudinal wave signal, and how these effects can be mitigated in preparation for experimental scenarios by fine-tuning the geometry of the rod and varying the duration of the pulse. This is especially useful with regards to experiments conducted in the HiRadMat facility at CERN, such as the recently conducted HRMT36 experiment, where high-frequency components can distort the signal to be observed.
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