Given the extreme levels of complexity involved, these shortcomings are not surprising. Nonetheless, it is essential that we move beyond the current situation with better theories and methods. Recent theoretical and empirical work will be presented that focus on within-person modelling of multiple symptoms, involving both physical and psychological changes of the menstrual cycle.
This work provides insights regarding individual differences in response to the menstrual cycle, and provides the basis for more complex theoretical models involving multi-level causal pathways of biological, physical, psychological, behavioural, and social changes of the menstrual cycle. It will be argued that these approaches will provide additional instruments for developing a more coherent understanding of how the menstrual cycle influences both psychological and physical wellness of women.