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Title: Challenges for sustained observing and forecasting systems in the Mediterranean Sea
Authors: Tintoré, Joaquín
Pinardi, Nadia
Álvarez-Fanjul, Enrique
Aguiar, Eva
Álvarez-Berastegui, Diego
Bajo, Marco
Balbin, Rosa
Bozzano, Roberto
Buongiorno Nardelli, Bruno
Cardin, Vanessa
Casas, Benjamin
Charcos-Llorens, Miguel
Chiggiato, Jacopo
Clementi, Emanuela
Coppini, Giovanni
Coppola, Laurent
Cossarini, Gianpiero
Deidun, Alan
Deudero, Salud
D’Ortenzio, Fabrizio
Drago, Aldo
Drudi, Massimiliano
Serafy, Ghada El
Escudier, Romain
Farcy, Patrick
Federico, Ivan
Fernández, Juan Gabriel
Ferrarin, Christian
Fossi, Cristina
Frangoulis, Constantin
Galgani, Francois
Gana, Slim
Lafuente, Jesús García
Sotillo, Marcos García
Garreau, Pierre
Gertman, Isaac
Gómez-Pujol, Lluis
Grandi, Alessandro
Hayes, Daniel
Hernández-Lasheras, Jaime
Herut, Barak
Heslop, Emma
Hilmi, Karim
Juza, Melanie
Kallos, George
Korres, Gerasimos
Lecci, Rita
Lazzari, Paolo
Lorente, Pablo
Liubartseva, Svitlana
Louanchi, Ferial
Malacic, Vlado
Mannarini, Gianandrea
March, David
Marullo, Salvatore
Mauri, Elena
Meszaros, Lorinc
Mourre, Baptiste
Mortier, Laurent
Muñoz-Mas, Cristian
Novellino, Antonio
Obaton, Dominique
Orfila, Alejandro
Pascual, Ananda
Pensieri, Sara
Pérez Gómez, Begoña
Pérez Rubio, Susana
Perivoliotis, Leonidas
Petihakis, George
Villéon, Loic Petit de la
Pistoia, Jenny
Poulain, Pierre-Marie
Pouliquen, Sylvie
Prieto, Laura
Raimbault, Patrick
Reglero, Patricia
Reyes, Emma
Rotllan, Paz
Ruiz, Simón
Ruiz, Javier
Ruiz, Inmaculada
Ruiz-Orejón, Luis Francisco
Salihoglu, Baris
Salon, Stefano
Sammartino, Simone
Sánchez Arcilla, Agustín
Sánchez-Román, Antonio
Sannino, Gianmaria
Santoleri, Rosalia
Sardá, Rafael
Schroeder, Katrin
Simoncelli, Simona
Sofianos, Sarantis
Sylaios, Georgios
Tanhua, Toste
Teruzzi, Anna
Testor, Pierre
Tezcan, Devrim
Torner, Marc
Trotta, Francesco
Umgiesser, Georg
Schuckmann, Karina von
Verri, Giorgia
Vilibic, Ivica
Yucel, Mustafa
Zavatarelli, Marco
Zodiatis, George
Keywords: Nature observation
Prediction theory
Seawater -- Mediterranean Region
Quantitative research -- Evaluation
Climatology -- Data processing
Operations research -- Case studies
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Frontiers Research Foundation
Citation: Tintoré, J., Pinardi, N., Alvarez Fanjul, E., Balbin, R., Bozzano, R., Ferrarin, C., ... & Clementi, E. (2019). Challenges for sustained observing and forecasting systems in the Mediterranean Sea. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, 1-30.
Abstract: The Mediterranean community represented in this paper is the result of more than 30 years of EU and nationally funded coordination, which has led to key contributions in science concepts and operational initiatives. Together with the establishment of operational services, the community has coordinated with universities, research centers, research infrastructures and private companies to implement advanced multi-platform and integrated observing and forecasting systems that facilitate the advancement of operational services, scientific achievements and mission-oriented innovation. Thus, the community can respond to societal challenges and stakeholders needs, developing a variety of fit-for-purpose services such as the Copernicus Marine Service. The combination of state-of-the-art observations and forecasting provides new opportunities for downstream services in response to the needs of the heavily populated Mediterranean coastal areas and to climate change. The challenge over the next decade is to sustain ocean observations within the research community, to monitor the variability at small scales, e.g., the mesoscale/submesoscale, to resolve the sub-basin/seasonal and inter-annual variability in the circulation, and thus establish the decadal variability, understand and correct the model-associated biases and to enhance model-data integration and ensemble forecasting for uncertainty estimation. Better knowledge and understanding of the level of Mediterranean variability will enable a subsequent evaluation of the impacts and mitigation of the effect of human activities and climate change on the biodiversity and the ecosystem, which will support environmental assessments and decisions. Further challenges include extending the science-based added-value products into societal relevant downstream services and engaging with communities to build initiatives that will contribute to the 2030 Agenda and more specifically to SDG14 and the UN’s Decade of Ocean Science for sustainable development, by this contributing to bridge the science-policy gap. The Mediterranean observing and forecasting capacity was built on the basis of community best practices in monitoring and modeling, and can serve as a basis for the development of an integrated global ocean observing system.
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