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Title: Presentation and management of diabetic ketoacidosis in adults in Malta
Authors: Imbroll, Miriam Giordano
Psaila, Alison
Abela, Alexia-Giovanna
Gruppetta, Mark
Vella, Sandro
Vassallo, Josanne
Cachia, Mario J.
Fava, Stephen
Keywords: Diabetic acidosis
Ketoacidosis -- Treatment
Diabetes -- Complications
Diabetics -- Care
Issue Date: 2019-12
Publisher: University of Malta. Medical School
Citation: Imbroll, M. G., Psaila, A., Abela, A. G., Gruppetta, M., Vella, S., Vassallo, J., ...Fava, S. (2019). Presentation and management of diabetic ketoacidosis in adults in Malta. Malta Medical School Gazette, 3(3), 3-10.
Abstract: Aim: The aim of this audit was to assess adherence to local guideline in the management of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA). Method: Patients admitted with DKA between April 2013 and March 2015 were identified and data was retrospectively collected from patients’ confidential files and Isoft®. Data collected included initial parameters recorded and biochemical investigations taken (initial and subsequent assessment of pH, HCO3-, blood glucose, potassium levels and urinary ketones), insulin regime started and intravenous fluid administered. Results: During the established time period 40 cases of DKA were identified in 18 patients. Median age was 33 years with a female preponderance of 60%. Six patients had newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus while 8 patients had more than one admission of DKA. All cases had capillary blood glucose monitoring (BGM) and/or venous random blood (plasma) glucose (RBG) checked and pH and HCO3- recorded on admission. 0.9% sodium chloride was the intravenous fluid started in all cases (as recommended by the guideline) and a median of 6.75L was prescribed during the first 24 hours. The median time spent on intravenous insulin infusion was 42.7 hours while the median time to pH >7.30, HCO3- >15mmol/L and negligible urinary ketones were 6.88, 12.83 and 34.5 hours respectively. Subcutaneous insulin was started at a median time of 48.21 hours from initiation of DKA protocol. Conclusion: This audit showed good adherence to local guideline. The great discrepancy between the time to pH >7.3 and the time to negligible urinary ketones highlights the need to introduce tools to measure systemic ketone production in the management of DKA with an update in the current local clinical practice guideline.
Appears in Collections:MMSG, Volume 3, Issue 3
MMSG, Volume 3, Issue 3

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