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Title: The current situation for the water sources in the Maltese Islands
Authors: Spiteri, David
Scerri, Christian A.
Valdramidis, Vasilis P.
Keywords: Water-supply -- Malta
Saline water conversion -- Reverse osmosis process -- Malta
Sewage disposal plants -- Malta
Issue Date: 2015-05
Publisher: Malta Journal of Health Sciences
Citation: Malta Journal of Health Sciences. 2015, Vol.2(1), p. 22-25
Abstract: This commentary addresses issues related to the scarcity of water in the Maltese Islands and its main causes. Some basic metrics related to the abstraction of freshwater, contamination of groundwater by nitrate and the limitations and challenges of the water sources in the Maltese Islands are highlighted. Hereafter, the relation between water scarcity, rainfall and population density, as well as the resultant effects on the sustainability of the freshwater sources of the Maltese Islands are presented. The current focus is on the production of good quality water based on a number of Reverse Osmosis (RO) plants that are found around the Maltese Islands. The significant energy requirements of this technology are compared with those for groundwater and wastewater treatment production. Current practices in the Maltese Islands regarding the treatment and use of sewage effluent by Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) are described. The use of treated sewage effluent as an alternative source of water to RO water and of groundwater for second class uses is discussed. This paper concludes that the technology needed to employ treated effluents for unrestricted agricultural use and also for aquifer recharge is now in existence.
Appears in Collections:MJHS, Volume 2, Issue 1
MJHS, Volume 2, Issue 1
Scholarly Works - FacHScFSEH
Scholarly Works - FacM&SPB

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