Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Title: Symplegma (Ascidiacea : Styelidae), a non-indigenous genus spreading within the Mediterranean Sea : taxonomy, routes and vectors
Authors: Ramos Esplá, Alfonso A.
Bitar, Ghazi
Sghaier, Yassine Ramzi
Çinar, Melih Ertan
Deidun, Alan
Ferrario, Jasmine
Ulman, Aylin
Keywords: Introduced organisms -- Mediterranean Region
Biodiversity -- Mediterranean Region
Sea squirts -- Mediterranean Region
Chordata -- Mediterranean Region
Tunicata -- Mediterranean Region
Styelidae -- Mediterranean Region
Stolidobranchia -- Mediterranean Region
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: Invasivesnet
Citation: Ramos-Esplá, A. A., Bitar, G., Sghaier, Y. R., Çinar, M. E., Deidun, A., Ferrario, J., & Ulman, A. (2019). Symplegma (Ascidiacea: Styelidae), a non-indigenous genus spreading within the Mediterranean Sea: taxonomy, routes and vectors. Aquatic Invasions, 15(1), 44-62, 3391/ai.2020.15.1.04
Abstract: Symplegma is a genus of compound ascidians (Fam. Styelidae) with warm water affinities and distribution in tropical and subtropical waters of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. The first record of this genus (as S. viride) in the Mediterranean was from 1951 in the Levantine Sea, presumably entering the basin from the Red Sea through the Suez Canal. Subsequently, it has been expanding its distributional range northward along the Levantine Sea coast, probably following the prevailing surface current direction. Recently, Symplegma has colonized the Aegean, Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas, where it is spreading quickly, most likely mediated by shipping (i.e., hull fouling). Some specimens from the Ionian Sea (specifically from Tunisia, Malta) present opaque tunics resembling the Indo-Pacific Symplegma bahraini; however, morphological studies suggest that the genus in the Mediterranean Sea is represented by a single species, Symplegma brakenhielmi. The taxonomy of S. brakenhielmi, as well as its spreading routes and possible introduction vectors are analysed.
Description: This study was first presented at the 10th International Conference on Marine Bioinvasions held in Puerto Madryn, Argentina, October 16–18, 2018 (
Appears in Collections:Scholarly Works - FacSciGeo

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
published Symplegma paper March 2020.pdf4.92 MBAdobe PDFView/Open

Items in OAR@UM are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.