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Title: Aminonaphthalimide hybrids of mitoxantrone and amonafide as anticancer and fluorescent cellular imaging agents
Authors: Johnson, Alex D.
Zammit, Rodrianne
Vella, Jasmine
Valentino, Mario
Buhagiar, Joseph A.
Keywords: Aminopeptidases
Mitoxantrone hydrochloride
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: Johnson, A. D., Zammit, R., Vella, J., Valentino, M., Buhagiar, J. A., & Magri, D. C. (2019). Aminonaphthalimide hybrids of mitoxantrone and amonafide as anticancer and fluorescent cellular imaging agents. Bioorganic Chemistry, 93, 103287.
Abstract: Novel water-soluble 4-aminonaphthalimides were synthesised and their cellular fluorescent imaging, cytotoxicity and ability to induced apoptosis evaluated. The lead compound 1 was designed from the cross-fertilisation of the basic hydrophilic amino pharmacophore of mitoxantrone, and an aminonaphthalimide scaffold of the drug candidate, amonafide. The compounds are also fluorescent pH probes based on photoinduced electron transfer (PET) and internal charge transfer (ICT). The compounds are sensitive to solvent polarity with large Stoke shifts (> 90 nm) and provide emissive-coloured solutions (blue to yellow). Excited state pKas of 9.0–9.3 and fluorescence quantum yields of 0.47–0.58 were determined in water. The cytotoxicity and cellular fluorescent imaging properties of the compounds were tested on human cancer cell lines K562 and MCF-7 by the MTT assay, phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy. Compounds 1 and 3 with flexible aminoalkyl chains exhibited GI50 comparable to amonafide, while 2 and 4 with a rigid piperazine moiety and butyl chain are less cytotoxic. Fluorescence microscopy with 1 allowed for the visualization of the intracellular microenvironment exemplifying the potential utility of such hybrid molecules as anticancer and fluorescent cellular imaging agents.
Appears in Collections:Scholarly Works - FacM&SPB

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