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Title: Precursors for cytochrome P450 profiling breath tests from an in silico screening approach
Authors: Grafenstein, Susanne von
Fuchs, Julian E.
Huber, Markus M.
Bassi, Andrea
Lacetera, Alessandra
Ruzsanyi, Veronika
Troppmair, Jakob
Amann, Anton
Liedl, Klaus R.
Keywords: Breath tests
Personalized medicine
Volatile organic compounds
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: IOP Publishing Ltd
Citation: Von Grafenstein, S., Fuchs, J. E., Huber, M. M., Bassi, A., Lacetera, A., Ruzsanyi, V., ... & Liedl, K. R. (2014). Precursors for cytochrome P450 profiling breath tests from an in silico screening approach. Journal of Breath Research, 8(4), 1-14.
Abstract: The family of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) is a major player in the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. Genetic polymorphisms and transcriptional regulation give a complex patient-individual CYP activity profile for each human being. Therefore, personalized medicine demands easy and non-invasive measurement of the CYP phenotype. Breath tests detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the patients’ exhaled air after administration of a precursor molecule. CYP breath tests established for individual CYP isoforms are based on the detection of 13CO2 or 14CO2 originating from CYP-catalyzed oxidative degradation reactions of isotopically labeled precursors. We present an in silico work-flow aiming at the identification of novel precursor molecules, likely to result in VOCs other than CO2 upon oxidative degradation as we aim at label-free precursor molecules. The ligand-based work-flow comprises five parts: (1) CYP profiling was encoded as a decision tree based on 2D molecular descriptors derived from established models in the literature and validated against publicly available data extracted from the DrugBank. (2) Likely sites of metabolism were identified by reactivity and accessibility estimation for abstractable hydrogen radical. (3) Oxidative degradation reactions (O- and N-dealkylations) were found to be most promising in the release of VOCs. Thus, the CYP-catalyzed oxidative degradation reaction was encoded as SMIRKS (a programming language style to implement reactions based on the SMARTS description) to enumerate possible reaction products. (4) A quantitative structure property relation (QSPR) model aiming to predict the Henry constant H was derived from data for 488 organic compounds and identifies potentially VOCs amongst CYP reaction products. (5) A blacklist of naturally occurring breath components was implemented to identify marker molecules allowing straightforward detection within the exhaled air.
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