Prof. Everaldo Attard

Prof. Everaldo Attard

Prof. Everaldo Attard


Associate Professor

Rural Sciences Farmhouse
University of Malta
  +356 2340 2321
Prof. Attard graduated with honours in pharmacy at the University of Malta (1994) and later furthered his studies on Maltese aromatic and medicinal plants by undertaking a M.Sc. in Agricultural and Veterinary Pharmacy (1995). He furthered his specialization and obtained a Doctorate in Agriculture from the same University in 2001. He was employed with the University as a research assistant (1995) and in 1998 appointed within the academic stream. Dr. Attard was a part-time consultant with the Department of Plant Health (2000-2004). In 2007 he was officially recognised by the Medicines Authority and appointed as the herbal consultant in assessing herbal medicinal products. Since then, he has been the Maltese delegate on the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products and the Homeopathic Medicinal Products Working Group.

Prof. Attard has been lecturing in several areas related to medicinal plants and agricultural chemistry at the ex-Institute of Agriculture, Division of Rural Sciences and Food Systems within the Institute of Earth Systems and the Department of Pharmacy at the University of Malta. Through the Erasmus Staff Exchange Programme, Dr. Attard has lectured at several agricultural institutions including the Universities of Udine and Bologna. He is also an academic at the James Madison University. Since his employment with the University of Malta, he supervised several dissertations at the Diploma, B.Sc., B.Pharm. and M.Sc. levels related to the field of medicinal plants and agricultural products.

Prof. Attard is the author/coauthor of 46 papers and articles in renowned peer-reviewed medicinal plant journals, seven articles in professional journals and three book chapters. He has delivered several presentations at various conferences both at national and international levels. He has been granted several projects and worked on six projects at national and EU level. In 2004 he received an international award.

Prof. Attard has also attended several conferences, seminars and workshops related to medicinal plants and plant health issues. He headed an EU delegation at CCSCH at Chennai and Trivandrum, India, during the Maltese and Romanian presidencies. He represents Malta in several WGs, particularly the Medicinal WG within ECP-genetic resources.
  • Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
  • Agricultural Chemistry
  • Herb Science
  • Agricultural products

FARRUGIA, N. and ATTARD, E., 2021. Autochthonous and International Olive Cultivars in Malta: Morphometric characteristics and Physicochemical Analysis. International Journal of Agriculture & Environmental Science, 8(3), pp. 15-22.

BORG, D. and ATTARD, E., 2020. Honeybees and their products as bioindicators for heavy metal pollution in Malta. Acta Brasiliensis, 4(1), pp. 60-69.

THEUMA, M. and ATTARD, E., 2020. From herbal substance to infusion: The fate of polyphenols and trace elements. Journal of Herbal Medicine, , pp. 100347.

AGIUS, A., PASTORELLI, G. and ATTARD, E., 2019. Cows fed hydroponic fodder and conventional diet: effects on milk quality. Archives Animal Breeding, 62(2), pp. 517.

ATTARD, E., 2019. Agriculture, Aquaculture and Fisheries: Harvesting Resources from Soil and Sea. In: G. BALDACCHINO, ed, Malta and its Human Resources: Management and Development Perspectives, Malta University Press, pp. 219-244.

ATTARD, E., 2019. History, Definition, and Legislation. In: S.M. NABAVI and A. SANCHES SILVA, eds, Nonvitamin and Nonmineral Nutritional Supplements. Academic Press, pp. 3-8.

BONELLO, M., GAŠIĆ, U., TEŠIĆ, Ž. and ATTARD, E., 2019. Production of stilbenes in callus cultures of the maltese indigenous grapevine variety, ġellewża. Molecules, 24(11), pp. 2112.

SPITERI, R. and ATTARD, E., 2019. Determination of Physicochemical Characteristics in Maltese Ovine, Caprine and Bovine Milk. Journal of Dairy Research & Technology, 2, pp. 1-8.

VELLA, A. and ATTARD, E., 2019. Analysis of Heavy Metal Content in Conventional and Herbal Toothpastes Available at Maltese Pharmacies. Cosmetics, 6(2), pp. 28.

VELLA, A. and ATTARD, E., 2019. Consumption of Minerals, Toxic Metals and Hydroxymethylfurfural: Analysis of Infant Foods and Formulae. Toxics, 7(2), pp. 33.

ATTARD, E. and BUGEJA-DOUGLAS, A., 2017. Physicochemical Characterization of Maltese Honey. In: V.A.A. DE TOLEDO, ed, Honey Analysis. 1 edn. BoD–Books on Demand, pp. 171.

ATTARD, E. and MARTINOLI, M.-., 2017. What are the Prospects of Treating Neurodegenerative Diseases with Natural Products? EC Neurology, 7(1), pp. 26-33.

AZZOPARDI, M. and ATTARD, E., 2017. What about the weeds? Malta: Medical Portals Ltd.

LÓPEZ MORALES, M.B., BINTSIS, T., ALICHANIDIS, E., HERIAN, K., JELEN, P., HYNES, E.R., PEROTTI, M.C., BERGAMINI, C.V., ATTARD, E., GRUPETTA, A., CARPINO, S., TAVARES, T.G. and XAVIER MALCATA, F., 2017. Soft Cheeses (with Rennet). Global Cheesemaking Technology: Cheese Quality and Characteristics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 301-325.

SPITERI, R., and ATTARD, E., 2017. Determination of major and minor elements in maltese sheep, goat and cow milk using microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometry. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 9, pp. 43-50.

ACHOUR, I., AREL-DUBEAU, A.M., RENAUD, J., LEGRAND, M., ATTARD, E., GERMAIN, M. and MARTINOLI, M.-., 2016. Oleuropein prevents neuronal death, mitigates mitochondrial superoxide production and modulates autophagy in a dopaminergic cellular model. International journal of molecular sciences, 17(8), pp. 1293.

ATTARD, E., 2016. Herbal medicine-science vs. tradition.

CARUANA, U. and ATTARD, E., 2016. An ethno botanical survey of medicinal plants used in the Island of Gozo. Studies on Ethno-Medicine, 10(2), pp. 269-281.

SALIBA, F.M., GHOBARA, M.M., ATTARD, E. and ELLUL, B., 2016. Primary Study of the Non-Marine Epilithic Diatom Communities of Malta and Gozo. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 5(10), pp. 69-78.

ATTARD, E. and MARTINOLI, M.-., 2015. Cucurbitacin E, an experimental lead triterpenoid with anticancer, immunomodulatory and novel effects against degenerative diseases. A mini-review. Current topics in medicinal chemistry, 15(17), pp. 1708-1713.

MICALLEF, B., ATTARD, E., SERRACINO-INGLOTT, A. and BORG, J.J., 2015. Could EU herbal monographs contribute to Malta’s treatment armamentarium?. Phytomedicine, 22(3), pp. 400-405.

THEUMA, M., GAMBIN, C. and ATTARD, E., 2015. Physicochemical Characteristics of the Maltese Grapevine Varieties-Ġellewża and Girgentina. Journal of Agricultural Science, 7(4), pp. 61.

AREL-DUBEAU, A.M., LONGPRÉ, F., BOURNIVAL, J., TREMBLAY, C., DEMERS-LAMARCHE, J., HASKOVA, P., ATTARD, E., GERMAIN, M. and MARTINOLI, M.-., 2014. Cucurbitacin E has neuroprotective properties and autophagic modulating activities on dopaminergic neurons. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity, 2014, pp. 425496.

MEINEN, N., CAMILLERI, L. and ATTARD, E., 2014. The antioxidant activity of Maltese honey. Journal of Apicultural Science, 58(1), pp. 51-60.

PASTORELLI, G., FAUSTINI, M. and ATTARD EVERALDO, 2014. In vitro fermentation of feed ingredients by fresh or frozen pig fecal inocula. Animal science journal, 85(6), pp. 690-697.

QBAL KHAN, Z., AHMAD, K., ZAHOOR-UL-HASSAN DOGAR, M., SEIDAVI, A., SHER, M., MUSTAFA, I., RAZA, N., YOUSAF, M., SHAHEEN, M. and ATTARD, E., 2014. Heavy Metals Levels in Cows Milk. A Potential Threat for Consumers. International Journal of Medicine and Applied Health, 2(1),.

ZAMMIT, M., SHOEMAKE, C. and ATTARD, E.,AZZOPARDI, L.M., 2014. The effects of anabasine and the alkaloid extract of Nicotiana glauca on Lepidopterous Larvae. International Journal of Biology, 6(3), pp. 46-53.

ATTARD, E., 2013. A rapid microtitre plate Folin-Ciocalteu method for the assessment of polyphenols. Open Life Sciences, 8(1), pp. 48-53.

ATTARD, E. and MIZZI, J., 2013. Physicochemical characterization of Gozitan Honey. International Journal of Food Studies, 2(2), pp. 180-187.

BUGEJA DOUGLAS, A., ATTARD, E. and CAMILLERI, C., 2013. Molecular characterization of Maltese honey: diastase and proline levels changes in Maltese honey seasons, Farm animal proteomics 2013, pp. 266.

BUGEJA DOUGLAS, A., ATTARD, E. and CAMILLERI, C., 2013. Molecular characterization of Maltese honey : diastase and proline levels changes in Maltese honey seasons. Farm Animal Proteomics, , pp. 266-269.

FARRUGIA, D.L., SHOEMAKE, C.M., ATTARD, E., AZZOPARDI, L.M. and MIFSUD, S.J., 2013. Investigative study on the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting properties of the terpenoid extract of Crataegus monogyna using in silico models. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, 5(2), pp. 34-37.

SPITERI, C., ATTARD, E., CASTELLINI, C. and BUGEJA-DOUGLAS, A., 2013. Egg proteome: the protein and carotenoids characteristics deriving from laying hens reared in different housing systems and under different environmental conditions, Farm animal proteomics 2013, pp. 295.

SPITERI, M., ATTARD, E., SERRACINO-INGLOTT, A. and AZZOPARDI, L.M., 2013. Compilation of a Herbal Medicine Formulary for Herbal Substances in Malta and its Usefulness Amongst Healthcare Professionals. Journal of Young Pharmacists, 5, pp. 22-25.

SPITERI, M., ATTARD, E., SERRACINO-INGLOTT, A. and AZZOPARDI, L.M., 2013. Development of a herbal medicine formulary to promote patients' safety. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, 35(5), pp. 871.

ATTARD, E., 2012. Characterisation of Maltese honey.

ATTARD, E., 2012. Herbal medicine: drug interactions.

DEVENDRA, N.K., ATTARD, E., RAGHUNANDAN, D. and SEETHARAM, Y.N., 2012. In Vitro Production of Cucurbitacins From Trichosanthes cucumerina L. var. cucumerina. Advances in Life Sciences, 2(4), pp. 108-111.

ATTARD, E., 2011. The effect of different inoculations and enzyme-acid pretreatments on the bioethanol production from two Mediterranean Crops. Journal of Biofuels, .

ATTARD, E., 2011. Herbal medicine: two sides of the coin.

ATTARD, E., 2011. Homeopathy and Allied Therapies: A Review. Journal of Euromed Pharmacy, 1, pp. 36--39.

ATTARD, E., 2011. The safety of herbal medicinal products.

DEVENDRA, N.K., ATTARD, E., RAGHUNANDAN, D. and SEETHARAM, Y.N., 2011. Study on Seasonal Variation on the Content of Cucurbitacin of Various Vegetative Parts of Trichosanthes cucumerina L. var. cucumerina. International Journal of Plant Research, 1(1), pp. 25-28.

ROSSI, B. and ATTARD, E., 2011. The Haemagglutination potential of extracts from Urtica dubia plant parts. Journal of Natural Remedies, 11(1), pp. 76-78.

ATTARD, E., 2010. Squirting cucumber seeds: use of extracts from Ecballium elaterium seeds in health. In: V.R. PREEDY, R.R. WATSON and V.B. PATEL, eds, Nuts and Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention. 1st edn. USA: Elsevier Inc., pp. 1400.

ATTARD, E. and CUSCHIERI, A., 2009. In vitro immunomodulatory activity of various extracts of Maltese plants from the Asteraceae family. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 3(6), pp. 457-461.

ATTARD, E. and VELLA, K., 2009. The Effects of Ephedrine and Ephedra fragilis Crude Extracts on Human Peripheral Lymphocytes. Pharmacognosy Research, 1(2), pp. 38-42.

ATTARD, E. and ATTARD, H., 2008. Antitrypsin activity of extracts from Ecballium elaterium seeds. Fitoterapia, 79(3), pp. 226-228.

ATTARD, E., 2007. The past, present and future of herbal medicine.

MANGION RANDON, A. and ATTARD, E., 2007. The in vitro Immunomodulatory Activity of Oleuropein, a Secoiridoid Glycoside from Olea europaea L. Natural Product Communications, 2(5), pp. 515-519.

ATTARD, E., 2006. Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich.: In Vitro Regeneration, and the Production of Cucurbitacins in culture. In: J.N. GOVIL, V.K. SINGH and C. .ARUNACHALAM, eds, Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants: Search for New Drugs. USA: Studium Press LCC, pp. 49-72.

ATTARD, E. and ATTARD, H., 2006. The Potential Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Oleanolic Acid in the Hydroethanolic Extract of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Natural Product Communications, 1(5), pp. 381-386.

ATTARD, E., BRINCAT, M.P. and CUSCHIERI, A., 2005. Immunomodulatory activity of cucurbitacin E isolated from Ecballium elaterium. Fitoterapia, 76, pp. 439-441.

ATTARD, E., CUSCHIERI, A. and BRINCAT, M.P., 2005. Morphological effects induced by Cucurbitacin E on Ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Journal of Natural Remedies, 5(1), pp. 70-74.

ATTARD, E. and VUJICIC, R., 2005. Physical and Phytochemical Variations in calluses derived from Ecballium elaterium in Tissue Culture. Crop Research, 29(1), pp. 163-168.

ATTARD, E., 2004. Status of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Malta. Gozd Martuljek, Slovenia: Bioversity International.

ATTARD, E. and CUSCHIERI, A., 2004. Cytotoxicity of Cucurbitacin E extracted from Ecballium elaterium and anticancer agents in vitro. Journal of Natural Remedies, 4(2), pp. 137-144.

ATTARD, E., SCICLUNA-SPITERI, A. and ATTARD, H., 2004. Habitat Studies for the Wild Stocks of Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich. Cucurbits Genetics Cooperative Reports, 26, pp. 70-73.

ATTARD, E., SCICLUNA-SPITERI, A., CUSCHIERI, A. and BRINCAT, M.P., 2004. The Effects of Cucurbitacin E on Two Lymphocyte Models in vitro. Pharmaceutical Biology, 42(2), pp. 170-175.

LAGHETTI, G., SCICLUNA-SPITERI, A., ATTARD, E., PERRINO, P. and CIFARELLI, H., K., 2004. Collecting crop genetic resources in the Mediterranean agricultural islands: Maltese Archipelago. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter, 139, pp. 11-16.

ATTARD, E. and SCICLUNA-SPITERI, A., 2003. The Cultivation and Cucurbitacin Content of Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich. Cucurbits Genetics Cooperative Reports, 26, pp. 66-69.

ATTARD, E., 2002. Rapid Detection of Cucurbitacins in Tissues and in vitro Cultures of Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich. Cucurbits Genetics Cooperative Reports, 25, pp. 71-75.

ATTARD, E. and ATTARD, H., 2002. A Micropropagation Protocol for Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich. Cucurbits Genetics Cooperative Reports, 25, pp. 67-70.

ATTARD, E. and SCICLUNA-SPITERI, A., 2001. Ecballium elaterium: An in vitro Source of Cucurbitacins. Fitoterapia, 72, pp. 46-53.

ATTARD, E., SCICLUNA-SPITERI, A., GRIXTI, M. and CUSCHIERI, A., 1996. The Cytotoxic Activity of Cucurbitacin E and Busulphan on Ovarian and Stomach Cancer Cells in vitro: A Comparative Study. Xjenza, 1, pp. 29-34.

BUSUTTIL-GRIFFIN, F., SHOEMAKE, C., ATTARD, E. and AZZOPARDI, L.M., Crude fibre determination of Malva sylvestris L. and evaluation of its faecal bulking and laxative properties in rats. International Journal of Biology, 7(4), pp. 1.

  • EMP1016 - Biology and Chemistry for Earth Systems Science
  • LAS1033 - Herbal Science: From Field to Consumer
  • PHR3208 - Pharmacognosy and Natural Products
  • PHR5030 - Qualified Person Requirements: Pharmacognosy
  • RFS2150 - Plant Propagation Techniques
  • RFS5006 - Application Tools and Research Methods
National and EU-funded projects
a) MCST R&I Special Project 2008-01 - VOTIVVOM - Valorisation of the
indigenous vine varieties of Malta: Conservation, Assessment and Innovation [R&I-
Innovation in the Teaching of Sustainable Development in Life Sciences in Europe"
September 2010 [177267-LLP-1-2010-1-FR-ERASMUS]
c) PO Italia-Malta 2007-2013 project – PROMED – La Protezione dell'ambiente
nelle Isole del Mediterraneo attraverso la Valorizzazione di un Sistema Colturale
Arboreo - March 2010 [A1.1.1-42]
d) Med Programme – 2007-2013 project – CypFire - Multiple-rowed cypress
barriers against fires: a feasible, ecological and economical solution for the
protection of Mediterranean Regions. June 2010 [2G-Med09-70]
e) Research & Innovation Programme 2010 project entitled " Molecular
Characterization and Authentication of Maltese Honey (MolCAMH)" May 2011 [R&I-
f) PO Italia-Malta 2007-2013 project – ViEnergy – Vigna Energetica [B1-2.9/6] Oct 2012 –
Mar 2015.
g) PO Italia-Malta 2007-2013 project – t-cheesimal – New technologies supporting the
traditional Cheeses in Sicily and Malta [F2IJ10DD0290005] Feb 2013 – Oct 2013
h) PO Italia-Malta 2007-2013 project – PROMED II – La Protezione dell’ambiente nelle
Isole del Mediterraneo attraverso la Valorizzazione di un Sistema Colturale Arboreo
[I21H11000000001] Jul 2015 – Dec 2015.
i) COST – European Cooperation in Science and Technology - EUBis - Food waste
valorisation for sustainable chemicals, materials & fuels [TD1203] 22 Nov 2012-21 Nov 2016.
j) COST – European Cooperation in Science and Technology – PLANTMETALS - Trace metal
metabolism in plants [CA19116] Oct 2020.

International awards
The International Crop Research Award for the year 2004 by the Gaurav Society of
the Agricultural Research Information Centre.

The patent has been granted with effect from the filing date in accordance with
Article 24(2) of the Patents and Designs Act 2000 (MALTA) PAT/3376 Skat Limited -
Filing date: 30 Mar 06 (Incorporated in Malta) - BIO-ETHANOL PRODUCTION (72)
Inventor(s): Marie Therese Triganza and Dr. Everaldo Attard – The Malta Government
Gazette 9th January 2007, p. 96.